• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Hygrophorus nemoreus var. raphaneus Largent

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Scientific name
Hygrophorus nemoreus var. raphaneus
Author
Largent
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Hygrophoraceae
Assessment status
Proposed
Proposed by
Noah Siegel
Comments etc.
Noah Siegel

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Hygrophorus nemoreus is a European species, but the variety raphaneus was described by from Riverside County, California, USA (Largent 1985). It needs to be elevated to species rank.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Hygrophorus nemoreus var. raphaneus is a rare mushroom known from southern and central California live oak woodlands.

Currently known from five records from four locations, from a habitat in decline due to droughts, fire and development.


Geographic range

Currently known from three voucher confirmed locations, and a photo record from a fourth location. Two sites are within two miles of each other in the Santa Ana Mountains, and two records are from Santa Cruz county. A single specimen was brought into the Santa Cruz Fungus Fair in 2012, which likely came from Monterey County. Potentially, it could occur in coastal and coast range oak forests from Santa Cruz County, south into Mexico (no records currently exist south of Riverside County), and in the oak zone in the Sierra Nevada foothills.

A collection made in Douglas Co., Oregon, USA, called Hygrophorus nemoreus is likely a different species, and is not included in this assessment.


Population and Trends

Currently known from three voucher confirmed locations, and a photo record from a fourth location. Two sites are within two miles of each other in the Santa Ana Mountains, and two records are from Santa Cruz county. A single specimen was brought into the Santa Cruz Fungus Fair in 2012, which likely came from Monterey County.

Habitat is under treat, due to droughts, fire, and urban development, and populations are likely decreasing.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Typically solitary, more rarely scattered in soil or duff under oaks; typically in hot, and often dry oak woodlands of southern California. Ectomycorrhizal, with oaks; (Quercus agrifolia, Q. dumosa). Fruiting in winter and spring.

Subtropical/Tropical Dry Forest

Threats

Habitat loss due to climate change, leading to droughts and prolonged dry spells, which in part lead to stand replacing fires. Urban development in much of southern California.

Housing & urban areasIncrease in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alterationDroughts

Conservation Actions

Add to conservation list to protect this species. Do minimal invasive fuels reduction remediation in known and potential habitat to limit damage from wildfires.


Research needed

Targeted surveys for this species, and a better understanding of habitat requirements and restraints. Taxonomic work, elevating it species rank.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

None known.


Bibliography

Largent, D.L. 1985. New taxa of Hygrophorus from California. Mycotaxon. 23:383–404.

Largent, D.L. 1994. The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California 5. Hygrophoraceae. Mad River Press, Eureka, California.

MyCoPortal. 2021. http://mycoportal.org/portal/index.php. Accessed on February 23.

Siegel, N., Vellinga, E.C., Schwarz, C., Castellano, M.A. and Ikeda, D. 2019. A Field Guide to the Rare Fungi of California’s National Forests. Bookmobile: Minneapolis, MN. 313 p.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted