Entoloma queletii is a species of seminatural grassland and calcareous forest in Europe, up to subalpine areas. The grassland habitats are declining due to changing agricultural practices, development projects and pollution (airborne nitrogen deposition). The species is redlisted in many countries. Over the distribution range we assume a total habitat and population decline of 30-50% over the past 50 years (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17 years). Habitat quality has also become impaired and the decline in population size over this time could be even higher. This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years. GBIF lists more than 430 occurrences and national databases show more, and the real number of localities might be >3-4000, each with an estimate of 10 individuals. The species is thus assumed to have a population of more than 20,000 mature individuals. The populations in grasslands could have a decline near 50%, while populations in forest etc. decline less, assumed to be 15-20%. At a global scale (i.e. Europe) the population decline is assumed to be on average >30% in 50 years (past, present and future). The species meets the threshold for VU (A2c+3c+4c).
The identity of E. queletii seems to be indisputable, although a type sequence is lacking. It is normally an easily identifyed species. The current use of the name Entoloma kervernii has often appeared by DNA-sequencing to be identical to Entoloma queletii, although the original concept of E. kervernii is still unclear (Bálint Dima pers. comm.). The GBIF records from North America probably represent another species (E. albinellum is a N American species resembling E. queletii), and very few European Entoloma species occur in North America (M.E. Noordeloos pers. comm.).
A rather rare European species, mostly in semi-natural grasslands, which are strongly declining. Also occurring in rich forests.
In GBIF (2021) about 320 records of E. queletii appear from northern and central Europe (2021). In addition there are roughly 100 records of E. kervernii from the same area, supposed to be identical to E. queletii. E. queletii is with certainty only known from Europe, where it occurs in many countries from the lowlands up to subalpine areas, especially in the northwestern part (UK and Scandinavia). The eastern limit is uncertain due to lack of data.
According to GBIF (2021) and national databases there are >500 occurrences from Europe of Entoloma queletii and E. kervernii altogether, partly from grasslands and partly from forests, with some differences between countries. Based on available information on trends in seminatural grasslands, Griffith et al. (2013) estimated a habitat loss of 90% over the last 75 years for the CHEG-fungi (grassland fungi of Clavariaceae, Hygrocybe s.l., Entoloma and Geoglossaceae) as a whole in Western Europe. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the area of grasslands in the EU declined by 12.8% over 13 years (1990-2003). Also other sources point to a habitat loss in seminatural grasslands of roughly 1% per year in Europe over a longer time, although the data quality is not always very good. The habitat quality of seminatural grasslands is also declining, strengthening the population decline. More than 75% of the grasslands habitats are in an unfavourable conservation status (http://ec.europa. eu/environment/nature/knowledge/ rep_habitats/index_en.htm#csa). Grassland populations are suppose to have declined with nearly 50% in 50 years. As the habitat quality is also declining, population decline could be higher. Much of European grasslands have bad habitat quality. Populations in different calcareous forests are assumed to have declined by 15-20% in 50 years. Over the whole distribution range we assume a total habitat loss and population decline of above 30% over the past 50 years. This trend is ongoing and expected to continue in the future.
Population Trend: Decreasing
Entoloma queletii is one of many fungi of calcareous seminatural grasslands, which also can be found in different forests types. In Finland, UK and Germany most records are from different (often moist) forest types (Lüderitz & Gminder 2014, Martyn Ainsworth pers. comm.). In Norway most localities are in calcareous seminatural grasslands, with only 7-8% of localities in different (mostly calcareous) forest types (Jordal et al. 2016). In Czech Republic in broadleaved forests (Alnus, Populus, Fraxinus, Betula) in mosses (Antonín 2006). It is also rarely found in rich to calcareous fens and limestone/chalk with shallow soil. It is mostly found in the lowlands, but goes up into northern boreal zone in Norway, and is found up to 1220 m asl in Switzerland. The nutrient strategy is unknown. The fruit bodies are short-lived (weeks), but the mycelium is suspected to be long-lived; >50-100 years.
Habitat destruction and abandonment are the main threats to seminatural grasslands. The most important process is probably overgrowing due to ceased grazing/mowing of old seminatural grasslands as part of intensification of agriculture. Further modern cultivation methods like use of fertilizers, pesticides and ploughing are also threats, along with airborne nitrogen deposition. Also in some places changed land use with the construction of roads, industrial areas, settlements etc. Decline is expected to continue, as at least the areas of seminatural grasslands are of little economic importance in modern agriculture. Most CHEG grasslands (see Population) are among types assessed as VU, EN or CR in the EU Red List of habitats (Janssen et al. 2016). Forests can be clearcut. Each of the habitats can be destroyed by exploitation.
The habitats should be protected against destruction due to intensification of agriculture or development plans. The maintaining of seminatural grasslands demands yearly grazing or mowing. Grazing by heavy animals may destroy part of the soil, light animals like sheep should be recommended. The moist sensitive forests need protection from drainage and other disturbances. Habitat conservation by governmental support to traditional agricultural practices is most important, this exists in many countries to maintain extensive agricultural areas, and should be extended to larger areas than today.
Further ecological research is needed to clarify the nutrient strategy of grassland Entoloma species. Management plans are needed. Habitat trends should be monitored.
No use or trade is known.
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