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Cortinarius camptoros Brandrud & Melot

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Scientific name
Cortinarius camptoros
Author
Brandrud & Melot
Common names
Elastischer Klumpfuß
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Cortinariaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2021-04-27
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
C2a(i)
Assessors
Brandrud, T.-E., Kalucka, I.L. & Saar, I.
Reviewers
Dahlberg, A.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/203334415/203334509

Justification

Cortinarius camptoros is mainly associated with Abies alba, in mixed stands, but probably also with Picea abies. Its major habitat is montane, calcareous Abies- or Abies-Picea forests of central and southern Europe, a forest type with many habitat-specific taxa of Cortinarius, subgenus Phlegmacium. The Phlegmacium-rich, calcareous Abies or mixed Abies-Picea-Fagus forests often occupy small and fragmented areas, and the habitat is vulnerable of habitat loss due to urbanization, lime quarries, and a shift in tree species to uniform Picea plantations etc. They are also experiencing declines in ecological quality due to modern forestry (with clear-cuts). The species is known from c. 10 localities/sites in Europe only. Taking into account other potential areas where the species could occur, the total population is estimated to occur at approximately 125-150 localities, which would give a population size of 2,500 - 3,000 mature individuals. Therefore, C. camptoros is as assessed as Vulnerable under criterion C2a(i), based on a continuous decline, population size <10,000 individuals and very small/isolated subpopulations.

Taxonomic notes

Cortinarius camptoros is used treated in a strict sense, covering the taxon associated with calcareous Abies-Picea forests. The name C. camptoros has also been used in a wider sense, including a taxon occurring e.g. in Tilia and Fagus forests (Brandrud and Melot 1983). The group is now under taxonomic revision.

Geographic range

According to present data, Cortinarius camptoros is mainly distributed in the montane region of Abies alba-Picea abies forests of the Black Forest region of south-west Germany, and the Austrian Pre-Alps. It is also found in the north-east Pyrenées (Spain). Additionally, it has been found in mixed Abies forests in the French and Swiss Jura that fits the species in a strict sense (but these are not sequenced). Although not verified with sequences, the collections from France and Switzerland appear to very probably to belong here, and hence these are included in the country list. The species seems to belong to a typical Abies alba or mixed Abies-Picea forest element, occurring together with typical Abies associates such as C. atrovirens and C. haasii. The species is distributed more or less within the natural Abies alba forest range, from the northernmost part of the range (Germany), to the south-westernmost (north-east Spain), and east to east Austria. Probably the species also occurs further east in Europe. The species is believed to be strictly European; with calcareous Abies alba forest-specific species not being found outside of Europe.

Population and Trends

Cortinarius camptoros is, so far, verified from sequence data only from a few collections from the Black Forest, two collections from the eastern Pre-Alps, Austria, and one from the Pyrenées, north-east Spain. A couple of collections from the French and Swiss Jura very probably also belong here in this species. The species in the wider sense (including close frondose forest species) is characteristic and is probably not much overlooked. Based on this, C. camptoros in its strict sense must be one of the rarer taxa of the calcareous Abies forest element. Based on present knowledge of its distribution, the total population is estimated to occur at approximately 125-150 sites/localities, which is equivalent to approximately 2,500-3,000 mature individuals (per Dahlberg and Mueller 2011). If the species has a wider distribution, e.g. into the Carpathians, Balkan mountains and Caucasus, the population estimates should be increased somewhat. The (mixed) Abies alba forests have declined in Europe (especially the habitat quality), according to the European Red List of Habitats, where the habitat is categorized as Near Threatened (Janssen et al. 2016).

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Cortinarius camptoros is associated with montane, calcareous, herb-rich, mossy Abies alba or Abies-Picea-Fagus forests, where it forms mycorrhiza with Abies alba, possibly also with Picea abies, in areas with mixed Abies-Picea forests. The species is rather well known from the mixed Abies alba forests of the limestone plateaus in the Black-Forest-Baar region of south-west Germany, from where it was also initially described (Brandrud and Melot 1983). This habitat is a very rich hotspot for phlegmacioid, fleshy Cortinarius species, and C. camptotos regularly occurs together with other species of the calcareous Abies forest, such as C. atrovirens, C. citrinoolivaceus and C. haasii.

Threats

Cortinarius camptoros and its habitat (calcareous Abies(-Picea) forests) have been reduced due to urbanization (including tourist resorts), expansion of limestone quarries, a shift from Abies stands to Picea plantations; as well as decreases in habitat quality/ecological conditions due to modern forestry with clear-cuttings (cf. Janssen et al. 2016), as well as overgrazing of small plants by deer (Diaci 2011). 

Its major habitats; older calcareous Abies alba forests or calcareous mixed Abies alba-Picea abies forests are apparently declining in Central Europe, especially in eastern parts of its range, and Abies alba forests are regarded as Near Threatened on the European Red List of Habitats (Janssen et al. 2016). The decline is well-documented e.g. in Austria where montane basiphilous Abies-Picea forest are regarded as endangered habitats, vulnerable to e.g. forestry, with a doubling of annual felling last 40 years, according to forestry statistics (Austria). Furthermore, according Janssen et al. (2016), as well as personal observations of assessors, on calcareous sites a number of Abies stands have been planted with Picea after clear-cutting. The narrow bands of Abies forests in the Alps valleys may also be vulnerable to climate change and pest outbreaks. Many fir forests have been declining since 1980 due to air pollution, but recently also this has been mixed with other factors such as deer overgrazing and climate stress. These negative influences are summarized in Diaci (2011).

Conservation Actions

To prevent further declines and fragmentation of calcareous Abies (-Picea) forests with good habitat quality, it is important to set aside reserves on calcareous hotspots, housing many rare/Red Listed, habitat-specific species such as Cortinarius atrovirens, C. citrinoolivaceus, C. haasii and C. camptoros. It is, furthermore, important to establish sites with a less strict conservation regime, such as woodland key biotopes, where some non-destructive human activities are accepted (such as non-intensive forestry, with closed cutting).

More mapping/surveying and monitoring of C. camptoros are also needed; more data on occurrences in the little studied calcareous Abies alba forests of the eastern Carpathians and the montane regions of the Balkans is especially needed. Finally, more documentation on the degree of decline of the habitats themselves is also needed.

Source and Citation

Brandrud, T.-E., Kalucka, I.L. & Saar, I. 2021. Cortinarius camptoros. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T203334415A203334509. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-2.RLTS.T203334415A203334509.en .Downloaded on 29 September 2021

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