• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
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Pleurotus albidus (Berk.) Pegler

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Scientific name
Pleurotus albidus
Author
(Berk.) Pegler
Common names
hongo blanco patón
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Pleurotaceae
Assessment status
Proposed
Proposed by
Mariana Drewinski
Comments etc.
Mariana Drewinski

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Pleurotus albidus (Berk.) Pegler, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 10: 219 (1983)

The species was first described as Lentinus albidus by Berkeley in 1843. Later, Pegler examined the holotype and the species was transferred to Pleurotus (Fr.) P. Kumm.

Basionym:
Lentinus albidus Berk., London J. Bot. 2: 633 (1843)

Synonymy:
Agaricus jacksonii Berk. & Cooke [as ‘jacksoni’], J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 15: 367 (1877)
Agaricus laciniatocrenatus (Speg.) Speg., Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 16(5): 247 (1883)
Dendrosarcus jacksonii (Berk. & Cooke) Kuntze, Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 3(3): 464 (1898)
Lentinus albidus Berk., London J. Bot. 2: 633 (1843)
Lentinus calvescens Berk., Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 8: 141 (1856)
Panus crenatolobatus Speg. [as ‘crenato-lobatus’], Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 9(6): 282 (1880)
Panus laciniatocrenatus Speg. [as ‘laciniato-crenatus’], Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 9(4): 164 (1880)
Pleurotus calvescens (Berk.) Singer, Mycologia 48(6): 855 (1957)
Pleurotus jacksonii (Berk. & Cooke) Sacc. [as ‘jacksoni’], Syll. fung. (Abellini) 5: 353 (1887)
Pleurotus laciniatocrenatus (Speg.) Speg., Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Córdoba 23(3-4): 381 (1918)
Pocillaria albida (Berk.) Kuntze, Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 2: 865 (1891)
Pocillaria calvescens (Berk.) Kuntze, Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 2: 865 (1891)
Pocillaria laciniatocrenata (Speg.) Kuntze, Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 3(3): 506 (1898)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

The species was described by Berkeley in 1843 based on material collected in Minas Gerais State (Brazil), growing on Citrus sp. In 1983, Pegler examined the holotype and the species was transferred to Pleurotus based on the monomitic hyphal system. The species is well distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the Americas, but is more common in South America, mainly in Brazil and Argentina. This is a species with medium to high detectability, growing abundantly on a wide variety of dead wood. P. albidus is an edible species and has been reported to be used by traditional communities in Mexico, Guatemala and Brazil. The population size is estimated at 45,000 – 50,000 mature individuals and is predicted to decline by at least 12% over the next three generations.


Geographic range

The species has a wide distribution, occurring in tropical and subtropical areas of Americas. In North America P. albidus was found only in Mexico, and the first record of the species was made in 2006 by Moreno-Fuentes & Bautista-Nava, for the state of Hidalgo, east-central Mexico. The species was also reported for Veracruz and Tabasco, states located in the Gulf of Mexico (Carreño-Ruiz et al. 2013; Sánchez & Royse 2017; Sosa et al. 2019).
In Central America and the Caribbean, the species was recorded for Cienfuegos, southern-central Cuba (Minter et al. 2001); Totonicapán, Chimaltenango and Huehuetenango departments in Guatemala (Morales et al. 2010; Godínez et al. 2018); Puntarenas State in Costa Rica (Albertó et al. 2002); Panamá (Guzmán & Piepenbring 2011); and St. Augustine city in the northwest of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago (Albertó et al. 2002).
  In South America the species was reported for Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. In Brazil, the species occurs from north to south of the country, with occurrences recorded in the states of Amazonas, Amapá, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul (Spegazzini 1889; Pegler 1988; Pegler 1997; Meijer 2001, 2006, 2008; Albertó et al. 2002; Sótão et al. 2004; Menolli et al. 2014; Gambato et al. 2016; Sanuma et al. 2016; Castro-Alves et al. 2017; Timm 2018).
According to Lechner et al. (2004), P. albidus is a very common species in Argentina. The species was reported to Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Misiones and Tucumán States, in the northeast and central regions of Argentina (Albertó et al. 2002; Lechner et al. 2004; Lechner et al. 2005; Lechner & Albertó 2011; Grassi et al. 2016; Giorgi et al. 2018). In Paraguay, the species was found in Distrito Capital and Paraguarí states (Flecha-Rivas et al. 2014; Flecha-Rivas & Niveiro 2019).
Kumari et al. (2012) reports the occurrence of P. albidus in Himachal Pradesh State, northern India, based only on morphological characters. This is the only record of the species outside the Americas and probably does not represent the species.


Population and Trends

P. albidus is known from 63 sites and 75 collections. The species is well distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the Americas, but is more common in South America, mainly in Brazil and Argentina. This is a species with medium to high detectability, growing abundantly on a wide variety of dead wood. The species is expected to occur in other 1.800 – 2.000 sites with 25 individuals per site (75 collections / 63 sites * 3 multiplied factor * 7 ramets). The population size is estimated at 45,000 – 50,000 mature individuals.
In Brazil, the species is found in the Amazon Rainforest and in the Atlantic Forest biome. The changes in the land use, the expansion of the cattle and soy industries, fire, logging and mining in the Amazon Forest have increased deforestation rates (Zhang et al. 2015). As well as the Amazon Forest, the Atlantic Forest is also threatened. New areas of forest are still lost every year, mainly as a result of urban growth or the expansion of infrastructure. The Atlantic Forest is the most densely populated biome in Brazil (Joly et al. 2014).
Taking into account the loss of suitable habitat (Zhang et al. 2015, Silva et al. 2020, Rezende et al. 2018, Joly et al. 2014) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on the species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson 2002, Haddad et al. 2015), it is estimated that the species population will decline by at least 12% over the next three generations.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

P. albidus is a saprotrophic species, a wood decomposer that causes white rot. The basidiomata are usually gregarious, growing in numerous groups on a wide variety of dead wood (Citrus sp., Sterculia sp., Salix sp., Populus sp., Cordyline sp., Araucaria angustifolia, Ulmus sp., Phoebe porphyria, Bursera simaruba, Heliocarpus donnell-smithii, Lippia umbellata) and rarely on living trees (registered at the base of Platanus sp. trunk).
The species occurs in a variety of ecoregions, such as Tropical Montane Cloud Forest in Guatemala, Amazon and Atlantic Forest in Brazil, Semi-deciduous subtropical forest in Argentina and Humid Chaco in Paraguay.
According to interviews conducted with people of the Náhuatl ethnic group in Mexico, who consume and sell the species, P. albidus grows from April (when the rains start) to September. For the fungus to appear, according to the community, there must be a new moon (crescent) and abundant rain. If only one of the conditions is present, the fungus does not manifest (Moreno-Fuentes & Bautista-Nava 2006).
In Guatemala, according to Morales et al. (2010) the species is found in June and July, the period of greatest commercial movement in the edible fungi market in almost the entire country.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

The Amazon Forest is essential for maintaining the global climate system (Swann et al. 2015). The changes in the land use and the expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon have increased deforestation rates (Zhang et al. 2015). Other threats are also constant such as fire, illegal gold mining, logging and lack of inspection and punishment by the Brazilian government (Condé et al. 2019). A number of modeling studies predict that about 50% of the Amazon basin will be replaced by savanna and arid land vegetation by the end of the 21st century (Zhang et al. 2015).
The Atlantic Forest has been suffering threats and loss of area over time. As a result of the long history of disturbance, most of the remaining Atlantic Forest is immersed in human-modified landscapes, with many small, edge-affected forest remnants (Joly et al. 2014). According to Rezende et al. (2018), there is only 28% of native vegetation cover for the Atlantic Forest biome, including both forest (26%) and non-forest native formations (2%). Habitat loss and fragmentation, logging, fire, hunting, and climate change have caused an alarming loss of biodiversity in the biome. The expansion of urban areas is also an important pressure further reducing the area of the Atlantic Forest (Joly et al. 2014).

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasAgro-industry plantationsAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingMining & quarryingUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

In Brazil, most specimens were collected in conservation areas. To guarantee the occurrence of the species it is necessary to maintain the existing preservation areas as well as the creation of new areas. P. albidus is an edible species and the collection and sustainable use of the species is important.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionSite/area managementHarvest managementAwareness & communicationsNational level

Research needed

New samplings are needed to better understand the distribution of the species. P. albidus has been cultivated experimentally in Argentina (Lechner & Albertó 2011) and Brazil (Gambato et al. 2016; Castro-Alves et al. 2017), but research on production is still scarce. The medicinal properties of the species also need to be better studied

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyHarvest, use & livelihoodsPopulation trends

Use and Trade

The species is edible and has been reported to be used by traditional communities in Mexico, Guatemala and Brazil.
P. albidus is consumed by the Yanomami indigenous people in the Amazon Forest in Brazil. They consume the mushroom roasted in leaves. The species is not cooked in water, nor is salt and pepper used because, according to the indigenous people, the species has a slightly spicy flavor.
    The species is traded by the Sanöma, part of the Yanomami people who inhabit the Awaris region, in the mountain forests of the extreme northwest of Roraima, Brazil. The Sanöma Mushroom mix may contain more than 10 mushroom species and is a product of the Yanomami agricultural system. Cutler II et al. (2021) using DNA metabarcoding to identify fungal contents of several food products, found the presence of P. albidus in the product made by Yanomami.
P. albidus is also traded in Mexico where it is sold in popular markets, mainly in the central states of the country (Moreno-Fuentes & Bautista-Nava, 2006; Guzmán & Piepenbring, 2011). Moreno-Fuentes & Bautista-Nava (2006) reported the sale of the species in the Huejutla market, in Hidalgo, by the Náhuatl ethnic group. P. albidus is used in Mexico to treat high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and headache. It is also used as diuretic, laxative and stimulating (Guzmán 2008).
In Guatemala, the species is collected and consumed by the K’iché people and by the peripheral communities of Sierra María Tecún, in Totonicapán (Godínez et al. 2018). Morales et al. (2010) also reports the sale of the species in Comalapa and Tecpán cities, both in Chimaltenango department, in Guatemala.

Food - humanMedicine - human & veterinary

Bibliography


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted