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Clitocybe glareosa Röllin & Monthoux

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Scientific name
Clitocybe glareosa
Author
Röllin & Monthoux
Common names
Kiesliebender Trichterling
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Tricholomataceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN A2c+3c+4c; C1
Proposed by
Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber
Assessors
Susana C. Gonçalves, Izabela L. Kalucka, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber
Contributors
Nathan Smith
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Clitocybe glareosa is a species-of semi-natural grasslands which were, for a long time, managed in a traditional way. These habitats are dependent on moderate grazing intensity and/or hand mowing without using artificial fertilizers and pesticides. They are rapidly disappearing worldwide due to changes in land use (agricultural intensification and decline of traditional farming practice) and increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, and as these habitats disappear so do the fungal species that rely on them. This species is easy to recognize and only known from relatively few localities. The species is not known to occur outside of Europe and it is very rare in all countries where it occurs. Decline in area and quality of available habitat has approached (or possibly exceeded) 50% over the last 50 years; the decline in population size over this time has probably been higher. This decline in habitat is expected to continue even more rapidly over the next 50 years (approximately three generations). Currently the population size is estimated at 1,500-2,000 mature individuals. The species is assessed Endangered because of the small population size that has been and continues to undergo a significant reduction due habitat loss and degradation. This meets the threshold for A2c+3c+4c; C1


Taxonomic notes

Clitocybe glareosa is sometimes treated as a member of the genus Infundibulicybe, as I. glareosa


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Clitocybe glareosa is a species-of semi-natural grasslands which were, for a long time, managed in a traditional way. These habitats are dependent on moderate grazing intensity and/or hand mowing without using artificial fertilizers and pesticides. They are rapidly disappearing worldwide due to changes in land use (agricultural intensification and decline of traditional farming practice) and increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, and as these habitats disappear so do the fungal species that rely on them. This species is easy to recognize and only known from relatively few localities. The species is not known to occur outside of Europe and it is very rare in all countries where it occurs. Decline in area and quality of available habitat has approached (or possibly exceeded) 30% over the last 50 years; the decline in population size over this time has probably been higher. This decline in habitat is expected to continue even more rapidly over the next 50 years (approximately three generations: one generation for C. glareosa is around 17 years). Currently the population size is certainly below 10,000 mature individuals. The species is assessed Vulnerable because of a reduction in population size of more than 30% over the last 50 years, a decline suspected to continue and caused by habitat loss and degradation. This meets the threshold for
VU A2c+3c+4c.


Geographic range

This European species is meridional to boreal in distribution, preferably in warmth-favoured areas with less precipitation. So far found in France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Denmark, UK, and the Netherlands, possibly also in Sweden and Poland. The species has very specific habitat requirements.


Population and Trends

Clitocybe glareosa is a rare species throughout the range where it is known. Usually, there are only a few records from each country. GBIF reports around 40 records, all in Europe. It is an easily identifiable species, the number of localities is estimated to be at least 10 times more, i.e. up to 400. We conservatively estimate the number of different genotypes to be two per locality, on average to correspond to four mature individuals (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011). Hence, then total population size is estimated at 1,600 - 2,000 mature individuals. The population is decreasing in all known countries of occurrence, caused by lack of traditional methods of grassland management. This decrease is inferred to be 30% over 30 years (past, future and ongoing) but may actually be as high as 50% over three generations (50 years; e.g., 1975-2025) and even higher over longer time-frames.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Clitocybe glareosa grows in mycologically rich but nutrient-poor dry seminatural grasslands, often on acid soil in grasslands surrounded by heath. Semi-natural grasslands are rapidly disappearing due to changes in land use. Almost all localities of the species are in relatively dry semi-natural grasslands with a few in inland dunes on dry open sandy habitats.

Temperate Grassland

Threats

Like other species dependent on semi-natural grasslands, Clitocybe glareosa is threatened by habitat loss due to lack of appropriate management and conversion into higher intensity agricultural lands. The main reasons for decline are agricultural intensification (primarily the application of phosphorus) and the reduction of area and quality of available habitat. In urban and suburban environments, e.g. in Austria at the Perchtoldsorfer Heide, the application of lawn fertilisers, fungicides and moss killers can also affect the species (Mitchell 2000). According to NATURA 2000 reports (Calaciura and Spinelli 2008), grassland habitats are steadily decreasing, mainly due to abandonment or change in land use. The total area of grassland in the EU fell by an average of 12% between 1975 and 1998, with increases in only very few areas. In areas where the habitat is still present, lack of management results in a continuing decrease in the range of many species due to decrease in habitat quality. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the area of grasslands in the EU declined by 12.8% from 1990 to 2003; only a few Member States managed to avoid this trend ( FAO Statistical Yearbook – FAOSTAT 2006). Pressure caused by land use changes on grassland habitats is steadily increasing. More than 75% of the grassland habitats in the EU are in an unfavourable conservation status, according to draft data provided by Member States under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive.  This species is included in e.g. the national Red List of Austria as Endangered.

Housing & urban areasTourism & recreation areasShifting agricultureAgro-industry farmingSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingRun-offNutrient loadsHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

Site protection and management of habitats are very important conservation actions for this species. Some grasslands with high species diversity and conservation value are situated within national parks, nature monuments, or nature reserves. However, these grasslands need careful management plans, including grazing which is not always present even within strictly protected areas. This situation results in continual decrease of habitat quality even if sites are protected from exploitation.

Resource & habitat protectionSite/area management

Research needed

Monitoring of existing localities would be desirable. Population genetics studies on the physical extent of genets (and how many ramets per genet) would improve estimates of “mature individuals”.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyPopulation trends

Use and Trade

There is no use and trade known.


Bibliography

 


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted