• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Dactylosporina steffenii (Rick) Dörfelt

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Scientific name
Dactylosporina steffenii
Author
(Rick) Dörfelt
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Marasmiaceae
Assessment status
Proposed
Proposed by
Mariana Drewinski
Comments etc.
Mariana Drewinski

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

The species was originally described by Rick as Tricholoma steffenii in 1930 based on material collected in São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Later, in 1985, Dörfelt transferred the species into the genus Dactylosporina.

Basionym:
Tricholoma steffenii Rick, Brotéria, sér. bot. 24: 99 (1930) type from Brazil.
Synonymy:
Oudemansiella steffenii (Rick) Singer, Lilloa 26: 66 (1954) [1953]
Tricholoma steffenii Rick, Brotéria, sér. bot. 24: 99 (1930)
Xerula steffenii (Rick) Boekhout & Bas, Persoonia 13(1): 55 (1986)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

D. steffenii was originally described as Tricholoma steffenii based on material collected in Brazil. The species has a wide distribution in tropical and subtropical areas of Central America and the Caribbean, but is more commonly found in South America. In Brazil, the species is found in Atlantic Forest and Amazon Rainforest biomes. The species grows on soil, usually solitary, and shows medium to high detectability. The population size is estimated at 50,000 – 100,000 mature individuals. Based on habitat loss and habitat quality loss, the population is expected to decline by at least 20% over the next three generations.


Geographic range

The species was reported in tropical and subtropical areas of Central America, the Caribbean and South America. In Central America and the Caribbean, D. steffenii was first recorded in 1999, found in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Guanacaste, Guanacaste province, and in Valle Coto Brus, in the Puntarenas province. The species was also recorded in the San Blas archipelago (Guna Yala comarca), northeastern Caribbean coast of Panama (Halling & Mueller 1999).
In South America, the species has been registered in 8 countries. In French Guiana, it was reported to Saül (Halling & Mueller 1999); in Venezuela for the departments of Amazonas and Aragua (Halling & Mueller 1999); in Colombia, it was registered in the departments of Valle del Cauca, Cesar, Amazonas, Antioquia, Caquetá and Magdalena (Pegler & Young 1986; Vasco-Palacios et al. 2005; Franco-Molano et al. 2010; Palacio et al. 2015); in Peru, the species was recently registered for the province of Ayabaca, department of Piura (Noé 2015); in Bolivia, the species is known for the departments of Pando, Beni, La Paz and Santa Cruz (Singer 1964; Pegler & Young 1986; Halling & Mueller 1999; Melgarejo-Estrada et al. 2020); in Argentina, the species is known for the departments of Tucumán, Misiones and Buenos Aires (Singer 1964; Niveiro & Albertó 2013); and in Paraguay in the departments of Distrito Capital and San Pedro (Singer 1964; Flecha-Rivas & Niveiro 2019).
In Brazil, the species is known for the states of Acre (Wartchow et al. 2014), Rondônia (Wartchow et al. 2010), Paraíba (Magnago et al. 2015), Pernambuco (Singer 1964; Wartchow et al. 2010), Minas Gerais (Rosa & Capelari 2009), São Paulo (Capelari & Gugliotta 2005), Paraná (Picciola & Battistin 2015) and Rio Grande do Sul (Rick 1930; Singer 1964; Capelari & Gugliotta 2005; Sobestiansky 2005; Wartchow et al. 2010).


Population and Trends

The species is distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of Central America and the Caribbean, but is more commonly found in South America. This is a species with medium to high detectability. There are 40 collections deposited in herbarium from 27 sites in Brazil, and 43 collections from 34 sites from other countries in Central America and the Caribbean. The species is estimated to occur in another 5,000 – 10,000 sites with 10 mature individuals per site. The population size is estimated at 50,000 – 100,000 mature individuals.
The population is expected to decline by at least 20% over the next 30 years (three generations). Population decline was estimated in light of extension loss of suitable habitat (Zhang et al. 2015, Silva et al. 2020, Rezende et al. 2018, Joly et al. 2014) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson 2002, Haddad et al. 2015).
In Brazil, the species is found in the Atlantic and Amazon Rainforests. Changes in land use and the expansion of cattle and soy cultivation in the Amazon Forest have increased deforestation rates (Zhang et al. 2015). Climate change is also a big threat in the Amazonian forest. A number of modeling studies predict that about 50% of the Amazon basin will be replaced by savanna and arid land vegetation by the end of the 21st century (Zhang et al. 2015). The Atlantic Forest is also threatened. New areas of forest are still lost every year, mainly as a result of urban growth or the expansion of infrastructure. The Atlantic Forest is the most densely populated biome in Brazil (Joly et al. 2014).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

The species is saprotrophic, growing on soil, solitary to scattered. Singer (1964) reported the species growing on rotting wood buried in forest soil, mostly found in summer and fall (in the rainy season).
In Peru, D. steffenii was found in cloud forests (Noé 2015). In Argentina, the species was found in Rainforests, in mountainous regions of Tucumán and also in the Pampa (Singer & Digilio 1952). The species was also found in Tropical dry forest in Colombia and Costa Rica (Palacio et al. 2015, Halling & Mueller 1999).
In Brazil, the species is found in the Atlantic Forest (Dense and Mixed Ombrophilous Forest) and in the Amazon Rainforest. Picciola & Battistin (2015) reported the species growing in a forest of Araucaria angustifolia (980 m elevation), on the ground among buried woody debris.  Sobestianky (2005) found the species growing on the soil in a plantation of Acacia decurrens (Sobestiansky 2005).

Subtropical/Tropical Dry ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

The Amazon Forest is essential for maintaining the global climate system (Swann et al. 2015). The changes in the land use and the expansion of the cattle and soy cultivation in the Amazon have increased deforestation rates (Zhang et al. 2015). Other threats are also constant such as fire, illegal gold mining, logging and lack of inspection and punishment by the Brazilian government (Condé et al. 2019). A number of modeling studies predict that about 50% of the Amazon basin will be replaced by savanna and arid land vegetation by the end of the 21st century (Zhang et al. 2015).
The Atlantic Forest has been suffering threats and continuing deforestation. As a result of the long history of disturbance, most of the remaining Atlantic Forest is immersed in human-modified landscapes, with many small, edge-affected forest remnants (Joly et al. 2014). According to Rezende et al. (2018), there is only 28% of native vegetation cover for the Atlantic Forest biome, including both forest (26%) and non-forest native formations (2%). Habitat loss and fragmentation, logging, fire, hunting, and climate change have caused an alarming loss of biodiversity in the biome. The expansion of urban areas is also an important pressure further reducing the area of the Atlantic Forest (Joly et al. 2014).

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasAgro-industry plantationsAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingMining & quarryingUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alterationDroughts

Conservation Actions

In Brazil, the species was collected in national, state and private preservation areas. To guarantee the species survival it is necessary to maintain existing preservation areas as well as create new conservation areas.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionAwareness & communicationsNational level

Research needed

It is necessary to expand sampling to better understand the distribution of the species and the population trends. D. steffenii is edible and studies on use, potential commercialization and cultivation of the species are also important.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyPopulation trends

Use and Trade

The species is edible (Li et al. 2020)

Food - human

Bibliography


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted