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Antrodia alpina (Litsch.) Gilb. & Ryvarden

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Scientific name
Antrodia alpina
Author
(Litsch.) Gilb. & Ryvarden
Common names
Alpine Braunfäuletramete
Gelbe Alpen-Krustentramete
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Fomitopsidaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN C2a(i)
Proposed by
Beatrice Senn-Irlet
Assessors
Beatrice Senn-Irlet
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Beatrice Senn-Irlet

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

Antrodia alpina is a rare polypore on conifers mainly larch, known in Europe only from the montane and subalpine zone of the Alps with a remarkable small population, habitat destruction may reduce this small population even further.
A dramatic population size reduction cannot be proven for the last 10 years as no intensive surveys exist. However, the observations of the last 10 years cover only 16% of all records, indicating good reasons for the estimation of a moderate decline. Forests in the Alps are used for timber production, are hampered by European winter windstorms followed by beetle infections, are cleared for touristic infrastructure and the maintenance of traffic infrastructures. Forest stands with a high amount of dead wood are rare (see data in National forest inventory Switzerland). Intense timber production for alternative electricity production (biomass fuel) is a real danger for this species. Forest reserves with natural succession processes allowed are needed for the survival of Antrodia alpina.
Common knowledge suggests an extend of occurrence confined to the Alps, i.e. an alpine endemic species with a low area of occurrence.


Taxonomic notes

Synonyms
Poria alpina Litsch., Öst. bot. Z. 88: 143 (1939). Type-localtiy: Austria
Amyloporia alpina (Litsch.) Domański, Mała flora grzybów. Tom I: Basidiomycetes (Podstawczaki), Aphyllophorales (Bezblaszkowe). Bondarzewiaceae, Fistulinaceae, Ganodermataceae, Polyporaceae (Warszawa-Krakow) 1: 106 (1974)
Amyloporiella alpina (Litsch.) A. David & Tortič, Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 83(4): 660 (1984)
Poria alpina f. pachymeres Plank, Mitt. naturw. Ver. Steierm. 111: 131 (1981)

Taxonomic notes
NCBI-Genbank (accessed 12 march 2019) display 7 sequences of so-called Antrodia alpina, 5 from USA and 2 without geographic source from a Taiwanese research group. The cited publication for the US-collections (Ortiz-Santana et al. 2013), however, does not contain Antrodia alpina. Apparently no European specimen of this species nor the type collection has been sequenced up-to-date.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

 


Geographic range

Recorded from the Alps in France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy and Germany in the montane and subalpine zone.
The Alps form a mountainous range of 800 x 120 km (Wikipedia). Of these 96’000 km2 only 20 % are in the altitudinal/climatic zone where this species occurs. Therefore EOO may be estimated as >20’000 km2

Country Occurrence:
Native: Europe (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Germany)
Classified as a species with an extent of occurrence in Europe exclusively in the Alps. (Bernicchia 2005, Ryvarden & Melo 2014).

 


Population and Trends

A total of 52 locations are known according to the databases for fungi in France, Switzerland, Austria and Italy and GBIF. However only few records are within the last 10 years (5 in Switzerland, 1 in Austria, none in Italy and Germany). As the species has not been searched for intensively, many locations may remain unknown. However, it is a well visible, colorful species with rather large fruitbodies, which will not escape anybody interested in fungi. Therefore it is reasonable to estimate the population size < 1000 individuals.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Forming annual thick lemon yellow coats at the base of very old very big living trunks, or dead snags and stumps of conifers mainly Larix decidua, more rarely Pinus sp.,  Picea abies , Abies alba in the upper montane and subalpine zone of the Alps, producing brown rot.

Temperate Forest

Threats

Forests in the Alps are used for timber production, are hampered by European winter windstorms followed by beetle infections, are cleared for touristic infrastructure and the maintenance of traffic infrastructures. Forest stands with a high amount of dead wood are rare (see data in National forest inventory Switzerland). Intense logging for alternative electricity production (biomass fuel) is a real danger for this species. Climate warming may threaten this cold-adapted species in future.

Unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

Habitat conservation, ensuring continuing growth of the host tree species (process protection) in forest reserves.

Habitat & natural process restoration

Research needed

Population size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade

The species is not known to be used.


Bibliography

Bernicchia, A.  2005. Polyporaceae s.l. Fungi Europaei 10. Edizioni Candusso
Daemon, W; Krisai-Greilhuber, I. 2016: Die Pilze Oesterreichs. Verzeichnis und Rote Liste 2016. 608 p.
Ortiz-Santana,B., Lindner,D.L., Miettinen,O., Justo,A. and Hibbett,D.S. 2013. A phylogenetic overview of the antrodia clade (Basidiomycota, Polyporales). Mycologia 105 (6), 1391-1411.
Ostrow H. & H.D. Zehfuß 2005. Vorschlag für Naturwaldzeiger. Tintling 43(2), 28-34.
Ryvarden, L. & R. L. Gilbertson. 1993. European Polypores. Part 1. - Synopsis Fungorum Vol. 6, Fungiflora, Oslo, 1 - 387.
Ryvarden, L.; Melo. I.  2014. Poroid fungi of Europe. Synopsis Fungorum 31. Fungiflora, Oslo, 455 p.
Rücker, T. 1997. Notizen zu einigen interessanten Porlingen aus Salzburg. Mitt. Haus der Natur 13, 23-26.

Electronic distribution maps:
Austria: http://austria.mykodata.net
France Auverge-Rhone-Alpes:  http://mycoflaura.fmbds.org  (on registration)
Germany: http://www.pilze-deutschland.de/organismen/
Italy: http://dryades.units.it/macrobasidiomiceti/
Switzerland: http://www.swissfungi.ch


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted