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  • Under Assessment
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Destuntzia rubra (Harkn.) Fogel & Trappe

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Scientific name
Destuntzia rubra
Author
(Harkn.) Fogel & Trappe
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Gomphales
Family
Gomphaceae
Assessment status
Published
IUCN Red List Category
CR C2a(i)
Proposed by
Michael Castellano
Assessors
Jean Berube
Contributors
Michael Castellano

Assessment Status Notes

Taxonomic notes

Originally described as Hymenogaster ruber by Harkness (1899).  It was recombined as Destuntzia rubra (Harkn.) Fogel (1985).  Fogel (1985) lists Hymenogaster versicolor Harkness as a synonym.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Easily recognized by its sequestrate habit, white peridium that oxidizes or bruises pink to red instantly,  a gleba marbled white and dark brown-black, and distinctly fishy odor of fish specimens.

Mostly confined to specific dryer habitat in the San Francisco Bay area, low foothills of the Sierra Mountains and Cascade Mountains. 

Extensive survey at historic known sites have not revealed new collections.  Extensive survey of potential habitat has revealed 5 recent sites.

Extensive survey through Random Grid survey of 750 plots in the region did not reveal any new collections or sites for this species.

CR C2 (ai)

520 potential mature individuals
200 extant potential mature individuals

8 historic sites not redocumented for more than 30 years despite reoccurring survey for them

Mature individuals in each subpopulation 10 or less


EN D
Known from 13 total sites but 8 known sites are older than 30 years and specimens have not been rediscovered in or near them since despite continued survey for them in the overweening years.

13 known sites x 4 mycelia = 52 mature individuals x 10 = 520 potential mature individuals
5 extant sites x 4 mycelia = 20 mature individuals x 10 = 200 potential mature individuals


Geographic range

Endemic to California and Oregon.

Originally reported from the San Francisco Bay area but not seen in that area in 40 years.  Both sites in Oregon not redocumented for at least 30 years.


Population and Trends

Endemic to Oregon and California.

Known from 13 total sites but 8 known sites are older than 30 years and specimens have not been rediscovered in or near them since despite continued survey for them in the overweening years.

13 known sites x 4 mycelia = 52 mature individuals x 10 = 520 potential mature individuals
5 extant sites x 4 mycelia = 20 mature individuals x 10 = 200 potential mature individuals


Apparently restricted to dryer sites in the San Francisco Bay area and the low foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains and the Klamath Mountains.

Listed as a sensitive species by the USDA Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management in Oregon.  Ranked as imperiled on the Global, National, and State rankings by the Oregon Heritage Program.  Listed as critically imperiled (rank 1) by the Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center (2013).

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

Hypogeous, mycorrhizal sequestrate species associated with the roots of Pseudotsuga menziesii.  Most known sites located below 600 m elevation.  Dependent on mycophagy (eaten by small mammals) for spore dispersal.  Fruiting March through July and October through December.


Threats

This is a mycorrhizal fungus species so it is dependent on living host trees for population viability.  This mutually beneficial symbiotic association between fungus and plant host roots conveys numerous critical advantages for plant host survival.  Mycorrhizal fungi are essentially the uptake organs for many nutrients i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, numerous micronutrients, i.e., boron, selenium, copper, and plays a major role in uptake of water.  Both the fungus and the plant host does not exist in nature without each other.

Mature old-growth with Pseudotsuga menziesii forests are encroached by urban development in the San Francisco Bay area from where this species was originally discovered.  Urban development along the California coast has led to some forest fragmentation that may impede fungus dispersal and gene flow.  In addition, these Pseudotsuga menziesii forests are subject to logging, clearing of land for agricultural use, and disturbance from human activities, i.e., road building, home construction, and campground development.  Global climate change is potentially devastating to low elevation coastal forests in western North America.

The lone known site inland occurs in a highly used Forest Service campground.


Conservation Actions

Protect known sites from management activities, including logging, campground development, and road construction.


Research needed

Use molecular tools to visit known sites to evaluate population size and structure.

Use molecular tools to examine other potential hosts, i.e., Pinus ponderosa and Tsuga heterophylla that occur in similar habitat.

Purposive surveys in potential habitat to discover additional occupied sites.


Bibliography

Fogel, R., Trappe, J.M. 1985. Destuntzia, an ew genus in the Hymenogastraceae (Basidiomycotina). Mycologia 77:732-742.

Arora, D. 1986. Mushrooms Demystified - A comprehensive guide to fleshy fungi. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA. 959 p.

Castellano, M.A., Smith, J.E., O’Dell, T., Cazáres, E., and Nugent, S.. 1999. Handbook to strategy 1 fungal species in the Northwest Forest Plan. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-476. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 204 p.

Cushman, K., and Huff, R. 2007. Conservation assessment for fungi included in Forest Service Regions 5 and 6 Sensitive and BLM California, Oregon and Washington special status species programs. R6 USFS and OR/WA BLM Interagency Special Status/Sensitive Species Program (ISSSSP). Appendix 2. http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/sfpnw/issssp/planning-documents/assessments.shtml

 

 


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted