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  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
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Cystangium pineti Singer

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Scientific name
Cystangium pineti
Author
Singer
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Russulales
Family
Russulaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A3c
Proposed by
Alejandro Kong
Assessors
Roberto Garibay Orijel, Alejandro Kong
Editors
Ricardo Garcia-Sandoval, Roberto Garibay Orijel
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Approximately 10 collections of this species are known from four locations (Kong et al 2008). For 10 years no new locations have been registered for the species.
Is an ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae. Therefore, it presents a restricted distribution to the highest mountains of central Mexico. Due to its adaptations to cold weather, P. hartwegii is the most imperiled pine species in Mexico when climate change scenarios are modeled. The species is restricted to highly endangered habitat. Data on its distribution are robust and its populations are unlikely underestimated.

Justification

Russula pineti should be listed as Vulnerable under the criteria A3c since: due to global warming its population is projected to reduce significantly due to a decline in are of occupancy (AOO) of 41.5% in the next 50 years. Nowadays occupies a restricted around 3300 km2, its 10 potential subpopulations are truly fragmented in “sky islands” and are probably genetically isolated.


Taxonomic notes

Nomenclature:
Russula pineti (Singer) Trappe & TF Elliott, Fungal Syst. Evol. 1: 238. 2018.
Basionym: Cystangium pineti Singer, Mycol. Helv. 1: 417. 1985.
Synonym: Macowanites mexicanus Guzmán, Rev. Mex. Mic. 4: 116. 1998
Proposed synonym: Russula guzmanii Trappe & TF Elliott, Fungal Syst. Evol. 1: 236. 2018. nom. nov. for Macowanites mexicanus non Russula mexicana.

Russula pinety grows semi hypogeous, has anastomosed and compressed gasteroid lamellae, its pileus is bright red and discolor to pink and white. This characteristics and its restricted habitat makes it very distinguishable.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Russula pineti is a rare endemic species from the highest volcanoes of central Mexico associated with Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae, both hosts are severely threatened by global warming. Therefore it has a restricted distribution and is in risk because habitat reduction. It should be listed as Vulnerable under the criteria A3c since: due to global warming its population is projected to reduce significantly due to a decline in are of occupancy (AOO) of 41.5% in the next 50 years. Nowadays occupies a restricted around 3300 km2, its 10 potential subpopulations are truly fragmented in “sky islands” and are probably genetically isolated.


Geographic range

Mexico, Highest altitudes above 2800 m in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt: Cofre de Perote in Veracruz, La Malinche volcano in Tlaxcla, Popocatépetl volcano in Estado de Mexico, and Nevado de Colima in Jalisco.


Population and Trends

Approximately 10 collections of this species are known from four locations, two from the Cofre de Perote (Singer 1985, Guzmán 1988), one from the Popocatépetl volcano (Gumán 1988), seven from the La Malinche volcano (Kong et al 2008) and one from Volcán de Colima (pers. obsr.). The search for records in GBIF only recovered one locality, the type locality for Macowanites mexicanus. As cyatangium pineti occurs in the highest parts of the Transmexican Volcanic belt associated with Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae, its population is in severe risk because of global warming. The habitat loss inevitable and in consequence there will be a continuous decline in the population. Currently its AOO is 3300 km2 with no more than 10 potential subpopulations as its habitat is a fragmented set of sky islands.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Semihypogeous. Solitary to gregarious. On soil, in high mountain pine forests. Ectomycorrhial with Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae. Above 2800 m altitude, in central Mexico.

Boreal ForestTemperate Forest

Threats

The high mountain pine forests in central Mexico are dominated by endemic species, such as Pinus hartwegii in the higher parts, between 3300-4000 m, and Pinus montezumae, between 2800 and 3300 m altitude. Due to their adaptations to cold climates, both species are in risk becouse of global warming. There is expected reduction of this habitat of 40% in the next 50 years. Particularly population of P. hartwegii from central Mexico, where Russula pineti develops, are at a high risk of extinction (Arriaga and Gómez 2004). In addition, these forests are often used by local inhabitants despite being within Natural Parks.

Habitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

This species is not registered in any red list. Most of the the known populations are located within National Parks. Global warming mitigation is the only alternative.

Site/area protectionAwareness & communicationsInternational levelPolicies and regulations

Research needed

Range of spatial and altitudinal distribution.

Hosts - pinus species.

Population size, distribution & trendsPopulation trends

Use and Trade

There are no reports about edibility or use of this species.


Bibliography

Arriaga L & Gómez L. 2004. Posibles efectos del cambio climático en algunos componentes de la biodiversidad de México. Cambio climático: una visión desde México. Pp. 253-263.

Elliott TF, Trappe JM. 2018. A worldwide nomenclature revision of sequestrate Russula species. Fungal Systematics and Evolution 1: 229-242.

Gumán G. 1988. Dos nuevas especies de Macowanites en México. Revista Mexicana de Micología 4: 115-121.

Kong A, Hernández Y, Montoya A y Estrada-Torres A. 2008. Notes on Cystangium pineti and Macowanites mexicanus (Russulaceae). Cryptogamie Mycologie 29(3): 285-292.

Singer, R. 1985. Studies on Secotiaceous Fungi. I. A new species of Cystangium. Mycologia Helvetica. 1(6):417-425.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted