• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • LCAssessed
  • Published

Amanita merxmuelleri Bresinsky & Garrido

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Scientific name
Amanita merxmuelleri
Author
Bresinsky & Garrido
Common names
Rau-Rau
Piojento
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Amanitaceae
Assessment status
Published
Proposed by
Camille Truong
Assessors
Francisco Kuhar, Camila Monroy Guzmán, Donald Pfister, Camille Truong
Contributors
Pablo Sandoval-Leiva, Matthew Smith
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, James Westrip
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

This species has a wide range in Patagonia, with a wide diversity of hosts. It is not thought to approach the thresholds for listing under a threatened category. Therefore, it is listed as Least Concern.


Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This emblematic ectomycorrhizal species strictly associates with Nothofagus hosts in Patagonian forests (Chile and Argentina).


Geographic range

The distribution of Amanita merxmuelleri is scattered across the western and southern side of the Andes, along the whole distribution range of Nothofagus. In Chile, it was collected from the region VII (Maule) to XV (Magallanes), while in Argentina it only occurs in Tierra del Fuego.


Population and Trends

Although populations are scattered and usually not abundantly fruiting, Amanita merxmuelleri is found over a very broad area in Andean Patagonia, with the capacity to associate with multiple Nothofagus species.

Population Trend: Uncertain


Habitat and Ecology

This ectomycorrhizal species associates exclusively with Nothofagus species in Patagonia. It has been found with multiple Nothofagus hosts, such as N. dombeyi, N. pumilio and N. obliqua. It has a wide distribution along the Andes from latitudes 35º to 55º. Its only ecological restrictions seem to be linked with sites that are relatively oceanic, since in Argentina it is only found south of the Andes in Tierra del Fuego.

Subantarctic ForestTemperate Forest

Threats

Overall this species is not significantly threatened. However, deforestation, particularly in the northern range of its distribution, and forest fires (intentional and accidental due to drought and climate change) are a growing threat.

Unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityDroughts

Conservation Actions

In Chile, several known populations lie within protected areas at the regional or national level (Karukinka Reserve, Magallanes Nacional Reserve, Puyehue National Park, Los Ruiles Nacional Reserve, Nahuelbuta National Park, Rucamanque Reserve).


Research needed

Further research is needed to understand the biology of the species (fruiting patterns) as well as its ecology (habitat requirements, host specificity and interactions). Although the species has a wide distribution with multiple Nothofagus hosts, its population trends are currently unknown.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

In Chile, the species is collected and locally consumed by mapuche and rural communities in the BioBio region to the south (Salazar Vidal 2016).

Food - human

Bibliography

Comité clasificacíon de especies silvestres (2014) Ministerio de Medioambiente, Gobierno de Chile. http://www.mma.gob.cl/clasificacionespecies/ficha11proceso/FichasPAC_11RCE/Amanita_merxmuelleri_11RCE_02_PAC.pdf

Garrido N. and Bresinsky, A. (1985) Amanita merxmuelleri (Agaricales), eine neue Art aus Nothofagus-Wäldern Chiles. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 107: 521-540.

Garrido, N. (1988) Agaricales s.l. und ihre Mykorrizen in den Nothofagus-Wäldern Mittelchiles. Bibliotheca Mycologica 120, J. Cramer, Berlin,
Stuttgart. ISBN 3-443-59021-7.

Salazar Vidal, V.E. (2016) Amanita diemii Singer y Amanita merxmellueri Bresinsky & Garrido (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), las amanitas comestibles de Chile. Bol. Micol. 31: 28–35.

Truong, C., Sánchez-Ramírez, S., Kuhar, F., Kaplan, Z. and Smith, M.E. (2017) The Gondwanan connection – Southern temperate Amanita lineages and the description of the first sequestrate species from the Americas. Fungal Biology 121: 638–651. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2017.04.006

Valenzuela, E. (1993) Estudio sistemático, corológico y ecológico de los Agaricales sensu lato de los bosques autóctonos de la Región de Los Lagos en Chile. Tesis de Doctorado, Universidad Alcalá de Henares, España.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted