• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
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Mycobonia brunneoleuca (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Pat.

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Scientific name
Mycobonia brunneoleuca
Author
(Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Pat.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Gloeophyllales
Family
Gloeophyllaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A3c
Proposed by
Melissa Palacio
Assessors
Diogo H. Costa-Rezende, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos
Comments etc.
Melissa Palacio, James Westrip
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Mycobonia brunneoleuca is a rare species of white-rot fungi, growing in neotropical forests restricted to montane environments, like Araucaria and cloud forests in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Martinique, Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela. There are approximately 16 collections of M. brunneoleuca known and it is estimated to occur in 1,000 to 2,000 sites with up to 5 mature individuals each, resulting in a population of 10,000-20,000 mature individuals. Due mainly to climate change and deforestation of cloud forests in neotropics, the population is expected to be declining by at least 35-50% in the next 30 years. The species is assessed as Vulnerable A3c.


Taxonomic notes

Hydnum brunneoleucum Berk. & M.A. Curtis; Polyporus polyacanthophorus Nakasone. See more taxonomy information in Gerlach and Loguercio-Leite (2011)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This is a rare species, known only from 16 collections in Araucaria and cloud forests in Neotropics, and likely to become even rarer with the continued loss and degradation of the habitat in the Atlantic Forest due to human activity and climate change.
Mycobonia brunneoleuca is a rare species of white-rot fungi, growing in neotropical forests restricted to montane environments, like Araucaria and cloud forests in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Martinique, Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela. There are approximately 16 collections of M. brunneoleuca and is estimated to occur in 1,000 to 2,000 sites with 5 mature individuals each, resulting in a population of 10,000-20,000 mature individuals. Due mainly to climate change and deforestation of cloud forests in neotropics, the population is expected to be declining at least 35-50% in the next 30 years. The species is assessed as Vulnerable A3c.


Geographic range

Mycobonia brunneoleuca is distributed in cloud forests and Araucaria forests at ~ 700–2700 m asl. in Neotropical regions in Brazil (Gerlach and Loguercio-Leite 2011), Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras (Nakasone 2015), Martinique (Burt 1919), Panamá (Martin 1939), Paraguay, Puerto Rico (Nakasone 2015), and Venezuela (type locality).


Population and Trends

Mycobonia brunneoleuca population can be considered divided into two subpopulations, one in cloud forest in northern tropical America, and the second subpopulation in southern South America. There are only 16 collections of M. brunneoleuca, five found in Costa Rica, three in Brazil, and the remaining collections were found one in each country: Colombia, Honduras, Martinique, Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Venezuela. Mycobonia brunneoleuca is expected to be distributed elsewhere in the Neotropical forests, likely restricted to cloud forest and montane environments. Based on the extent of potential appropriate habitat, the species could occur in up to 1,000-2,000 additional sites, each site supporting 5 mature individuals resulting in an estimation of 10,000-20,000 mature individuals. Recent studies suggest that in 25 to 45 years the decreasing cloud immersion will reduce or dry up 57% to 80% of the neotropical cloud forest, including Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, much of northern South America, and parts of southeastern Brazil (Helmer et al. 2019). Also Araucaria forests are suffering a continuing decline (Global Forest Watch 2020). Only a small part of the Araucaria forests are in conservation areas (Indrusiak and Monteiro 2009), and studies suggest that, due to climate change, by 2070 the species could be restricted to highland microrefugia, of which only 2.5% are in conservation areas (Wilson et al. 2019, Castro et al. 2020). Considering the expected loss of habitat, the population is inferred to be declining at least 35-50% in the next 30 years (three generations).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Mycobonia brunneoleuca is a rare and saprotrophic species causing white-rot on dead wood. Basidiomes are found solitary and it is only known from neotropical Araucaria and cloud forests, between 700 and 2,700 m asl.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

Araucaria and cloud forests are particularly susceptible to deforestation and climate change (Bubb et al. 2004). Cloud forests are restricted and dependent on rare microclimatic conditions (Mulligan et al. 2010, Oliveira et al. 2014), making it one of the most susceptible ecosystems to threats caused by climate change (Salazar et al. 2007, Williams et al. 2007, Goldsmith et al. 2013, Gotsch et al. 2014, Pompeu et al. 2014). The most widely recorded threat to cloud forests, and therefore to the species subpopulations, is the conversion to agricultural land or pine and Eucalyptus plantations. Other important threats are conversion to grazing land, hunting, fire, timber harvesting, fuelwood harvesting, roads, mining, and deforestation for drug cultivation (Bubb et al. 2004).

Small-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingIncrease in fire frequency/intensityUnspecified speciesHabitat shifting & alterationDroughts

Conservation Actions

Protection of the species habitat, neotropical cloud forest and Araucaria forest, by the establishment and management of conservation units at regional and local levels.

Site/area protectionNational levelNational level

Research needed

Additional surveys and collections are needed, also information about host specificity. Taxonomy, population size, distribution & trends, Life history & ecology, Monitoring, Population trends. Potential use as an edible species.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyHarvest, use & livelihoodsThreatsPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade

Not currently used, but potential should be researched.


Bibliography


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted