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  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
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Pseudorhizina korshinskii Jacz.

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Scientific name
Pseudorhizina korshinskii
Author
Jacz.
Common names
Строчевик круглоспоровый
ušiakovka okrúhlovýtrusná
ucháčovec šumavský
Round-spored false morel
Rundsporige Lorchel
Buji kankuch
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Ascomycota
Class
Pezizomycetes
Order
Pezizales
Family
Discinaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
NT A2c+3c+4c; C2a(i)
Proposed by
Eugene Popov
Assessors
Eugene Popov, Tatyana Svetasheva
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Daniel Dvořák, Vladimír Kunca

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

Rare and distinctive false morel with a very characteristic pinkish red to carmine red ribbed stem and dark brown cap. This wood-inhabiting fungus has a wide distribution all over the temperate areas of the northern Hemisphere but almost everywhere is reported as a rare and declining species.  It is red-listed in 7 European countries and 4 regions of Russia. Threaten by loss of habitat, air pollution, modern forestry. Population is relatively small and globally declining.
Preliminary global red-list assessment: ~ 130 localities is known,  the total population is estimated ~ 300 localities and 1500 mature individuals (5 per locality). It’s supposed < 15% of population reduction during next 3 generation (30-50 year for such wood-inhabiting fungi of old-growth forests). Thus preliminary assessment - NT A2c+A3 and C2(a i)


Taxonomic notes

= Pseudorhizina sphaerospora (Peck) Pouzar
= Gyromitra sphaerospora (Peck) Sacc.
= Gyromitra gabretae Kavina
Originally described from North America by C. Peck in 1875 as Helvella sphaerospora. The monotypic genus Pseudorhizina was established by A. Jaczewski in 1913 based on single collection from Kazan (Russia) described as P. korshinskii Jacz. It is generally accepted that P. korshinskii and Helvella sphaerospora are synonymous, and thus the later name has priority. However conspecificity of European and Norh American populations is not verified by modern studies. Recent molecular phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that Pseudorhizina could be included in Gyromitra in rank of subgenus (Methven et al., 2013; Wang, Zhuang, 2018)
A similar Western North American species Pseudorhizina californica can be reliably distinguished by ellipsoid vs spherical ascospores.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?


Geographic range

Species with Pan-Holarctic boreo-temperate distribution. Reported from many Central European countries (Herink, 1955; Skirgiełło, 1957; Häffner, Prongué, 1995; Pralong, Brunelli,1996; Iršė, 2004; Holec, Beran, 2007; Holec, Kučera, 2008; Oswald, Oswald, 2014; Gierczyk et al., 2015), France (Gruaz, 1994), Fennoscandia (Torkelsen, 1985; Huhtinen, 1983; Hansen, Knudsen, 2000; Often, 2004), European part of Russia (Jaczewski, 1913; Vassilkov, 1942, 1959; Kapitonov, 2013; Red Data Book of Leningrad Region, 2018; Red Data book of Mordovia Republic, 2017), Caucasus (Vaasma et al., 1986), Urals (Sirko, 1970), Siberia (Beglyanova, 1973; Astapenko, 1990; Perova, Gorbunova, 2001; Kudashova et al., 2016, Red Data Book of Krasnoyarsk Krai, 2012) Taimyr Peninsula (Stepanova, Raitviir, 1983), Altai (Rakhimova et al., 2015; Gorbunova, 2010, 2017, Red Data Book of Altay Republic, 2017), Russian Far East (Vassilkov, 1959; Bogachova, 2001), China: Tibet (Wang, Zhuang, 2018), Japan (Imai, 1954), India: Kashmir Himalayas (Pala et al., 2013; Wani et al., 2013; Sheikh,2013), and from North Americawhere most observations comes from Northeastern USA and Great Lakes region with several locations in Rocky Mountains and an isolated population in Black Hills in South Dakota (Pfister, 1982; Abbott, Currah, 1997; Gabel et al., 2004; Methven et al., 2013; Beug et al., 2014).


Population and Trends

In sum at least 130 localities of Pseudorhizina korshinskii (see the map of distribution, KLM file and image) are registered today in the world. Given the number of possible habitats (especially in the Asian part of Russia), we can assume about 300 localities in total and a suspected population of 1500 mature individuals (5 per locality). It is reported to decline in many European countries and included there in 7 Red list as VU, Rare, CR.  In Russia the area of presumable occurency of this species is decreasing due to intensive logging in Siberia and Far East ((Teplyakov, 2011; Illegal logging…, 2013; Feditchkina, Lankin, 2016), this species is included in 4 regional Russian Red Data books. It’s possible to suppose not less then 15% of population reduction during next 3 generation (30-50 year for such wood-inhabiting fungi of old-growth forests).  Thus a preliminary assessment can be Near Threatened according criteria A2c+A3 and C2(a i)

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Presumably saprotrophic fungus (Hobbie et al., 2001). In Russia usually reported on rotten wood of coniferous (Larix, Abies, Pinus, Picea), and broadleaved trees (Quercus, Populus, Betula) in different types of coniferous and mixed forests, but also in from man-made habitats; fruits from May till August with maximal number of records in June. Ecology of P. sphaerospora in Europe was reviewed in detail by Holec & Beran (2007). Habitat preferences in are not strict since while in the Czech Republicis known only from virgin forests, in Fennoscandian countries and North Western Russia it inhabits secondary human-influenced habitats like sawdust piles (Holec & Beran 2007).

Boreal ForestTemperate ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

Housing & urban areasOil & gas drillingUtility & service linesUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protection

Research needed

More information needed: The North American reports of the taxon may represent another taxon. Also actual detailed data about its habitat and status of its population/habitat are desirable.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreats

Use and Trade

Consumed as food and is used for the treatment of goiter in Kashmir Himalaya (Pala et al., 2013)

Food - humanMedicine - human & veterinary

Bibliography

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Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted