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Gyromitra korshinskii Jacz.

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Scientific name
Gyromitra korshinskii
Author
Jacz.
Common names
Строчевик круглоспоровый
ušiakovka okrúhlovýtrusná
ucháčovec šumavský
Round-spored false morel
Rundsporige Lorchel
Buji kankuch
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Ascomycota
Class
Pezizomycetes
Order
Pezizales
Family
Discinaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2019-03-29
IUCN Red List Category
NT
Assessors
Popov, E. & Svetasheva, T.
Reviewers
Krisai-Greilhuber, I.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/75118940/75118943

Justification

This species is a rare and distinctive false morel with a very characteristic pinkish red to carmine red ribbed stem and dark brown cap. This wood-inhabiting fungus has a wide distribution all over the temperate areas of the northern hemisphere but almost everywhere is reported as a rare and declining species. It is included in the Red Lists of seven European countries and the Red Data Books in four regions of Russia. It is threatened by loss of habitat, air pollution, modern forestry. The population is relatively small and globally declining.

The species is known from ca 130 localities, the total population is estimated to be ~300 localities and 1,500 mature individuals (5 per locality). It is suspected <15% of population reduction during next three generations (a 30-50 year period for such wood-inhabiting fungi of old-growth forests). Thus the species is assessed as NT A2c+3c+4c; C2a(i).

Taxonomic notes

Originally described from North America by C. Peck in 1875 as Helvella sphaerospora. The monotypic genus Pseudorhizina was established by A. Jaczewski in 1913 based on single collection from Kazan (Russia) described as P. korshinskii Jacz. It is generally accepted that P. korshinskii and Helvella sphaerospora are synonymous, and thus the later name has priority. However conspecificity of European and North American populations is not verified by modern studies. Recent molecular phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that Pseudorhizina could be included in Gyromitra in rank of subgenus (Methven et al. 2013, Wang, Zhuang, 2018).

A similar Western North American species Pseudorhizina californica can be reliably distinguished by ellipsoid vs spherical ascospores.

Geographic range

It is a species with Pan-Holarctic boreo-temperate distribution. Reported from many Central European countries (Herink 1955, Skirgiełło 1957, Häffner and Prongué 1995, Pralong and Brunelli 1996, Iršė 2004, Holec and Beran 2007, Holec and Kučera 2008, Oswald and Oswald 2014, Gierczyk et al. 2015), France (Gruaz 1994), Fennoscandia (Torkelsen 1985, Huhtinen 1983, Hansen and Knudsen 2000, Often 2004), European part of Russia (Jaczewski 1913; Vassilkov 1942, 1959; Kapitonov 2013; Red Data Book of Leningrad Oblast 2018; Red Data book of Mordovia Republic 2017), Caucasus (Vaasma et al. 1986), Urals (Sirko 1970), Siberia (Beglyanova 1973, Astapenko 1990, Perova and Gorbunova 2001, Kudashova et al. 2016, Red Data Book of Krasnoyarsk Krai 2012) Taimyr Peninsula (Stepanova and Raitviir 1983), Altai (Rakhimova et al. 2015; Gorbunova 2010, 2017; Red Data Book of Altay Republic 2017), Russian Far East (Vassilkov 1959, Bogachova 2001), China: Tibet (Wang and Zhuang 2018), Japan (Imai 1954), India: Kashmir Himalayas (Pala et al. 2011, 2013; Sheikh 2013), and from North America where most observations come from Northeastern USA and Great Lakes region with several locations in Rocky Mountains and an isolated population in Black Hills in South Dakota (Pfister 1982, Abbott and Currah 1997, Gabel et al. 2004, Methven et al. 2013, Beug et al. 2014).

Population and Trends

In total, at least 130 localities of Gyromitra korshinskii are registered today in the world. Given the number of possible habitats (especially in the Asian part of Russia), we can assume about 300 localities in total and a suspected population of 1,500 mature individuals (5 per locality). It is reported to be declining in many European countries and included there in seven Red Lists as Rare, VU or CR. In Russia the area of presumable occurrence of this species is decreasing due to intensive logging in Siberia and Far East (Teplyakov 2011, Smirnov et al. 2013, Feditchkina and Lankin 2016), this species is included in four regional Russian Red Data books. It is assumed not less than 15% of population reduction during next three generations (30-50 year for such wood-inhabiting fungi of old-growth forests).

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

This is presumably a saprotrophic fungus (Hobbie et al. 2001). In Russia usually reported on rotten wood of coniferous (Larix, Abies, Pinus, Picea), and broadleaved trees (Quercus, Populus, Betula) in different types of coniferous and mixed forests, but occasionally also in man-made habitats; it fruits from May until August with maximal number of records in June. The ecology of Gyromitra korshinskii in Europe was reviewed in detail by Holec and Beran (2007). Its habitat preferences are not strict. In Czechia, it is known only from virgin forests. In Fennoscandian countries and North Western Russia it sometimes inhabits secondary human-influenced habitats like sawdust piles (Holec and Beran 2007). However, most of the records were made in mature native forests.

Threats

The species is threatened by habitat-loss and reduced/depauperated habitat conditions. Its major habitat, old-growth coniferous forests, is apparently declining in Europe. The decline is documented e.g. in Austria where montane basiphilous Abies-Picea forests are regarded as endangered habitats (Essl and Eggen 2010). Furthermore, according to own observations, a number of Abies stands become planted with Picea abies after clear-cutting. Furthermore, habitat-loss due to road construction, settlements including tourist resort expansion are seen in many areas (Diaci et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions

Research is required on this species: The North American reports of the taxon may represent another taxon. In addition, actual detailed data about its habitat preferences and the status of its population/habitat are desirable.

Use and Trade

The species is consumed as food and is used for the treatment of goiter in Kashmir Himalaya (Pala et al. 2013)

Source and Citation

Popov, E. & Svetasheva, T. 2019. Gyromitra korshinskii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T75118940A75118943. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T75118940A75118943.en .Downloaded on 31 January 2021

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