• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • 5Published

Piptoporus quercinus (Schrad.) P. Karst.

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Scientific name
Piptoporus quercinus
Author
(Schrad.) P. Karst.
Common names
oak polypore
Kokamba-take
brezovník dubový
pstřeňovec dubový
Eichen-Zungenporling
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Fomitopsidaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A2c+3c+4c; C1+2a(i)
Proposed by
Ibai Olariaga Ibarguren
Assessors
A. Martyn Ainsworth, Ibai Olariaga Ibarguren
Contributors
Andreas Gminder, Tsutomu Hattori, Ivona Kautmanova, Tommy Knutsson, Martin Livezey, Thomas Læssøe
Comments etc.
Daniel Dvořák, Reda Iršėnaitė, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Vladimír Kunca, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Tatyana Svetasheva
Reviewers
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

This polypore is largely restricted to veteran oaks (Quercus spp. and usually Q. robur) in temperate deciduous forests across Europe and Asia with a recently-discovered and DNA-verified presence in eastern USA. It forms large annual fruitbodies and, although widespread, it is rare throughout its distribution range. In Europe the countries with most reports are Sweden and the United Kingdom (where it is legally protected), probably due to the relatively high occurrences of large oak trees in these countries. The global stronghold for this species (>100 occupied trees) is probably in England on the Windsor Crown Estate, which was formerly a royal hunting forest. Its potential distribution area is large, but the scarceness of ancient Quercus trees in semi-open situations is a limiting factor for its presence. As ancient oak woodlands have disappeared to a large extent during the past 100 years, populations of B. quercinus have decreased similarly. A cautious estimate of this habitat loss is 30-50% in a 100y perspective across continental Europe. Furthermore, the survival of B. quercinus in future is challenged by the scarcity and long time-scale required for large ancient oak trees to fill in the generation-gaps which are present in many woodlands today.
The usual situation is that just a few ancient and veteran trees are colonised by reproductive individuals of B. quercinus in each locality. Small subpopulations and an increasingly fragmented distribution make the species very susceptible to local extinctions due to the generation-gap in older trees.
The total number of localities is estimated to be much less than 500, corresponding to less than 5000 mature individuals. Considering an ongoing marked decline in both amount of and habitat quality of veteran oaks, it is assessed as Vulnerable.


Taxonomic notes

This species is also known as Piptoporus quercinus (Schrad.) P. Karst, but its correct placement is in Buglossoporus, as it is not closely related to P. betulinus, the generic type as shown by molecular data (Binder et al. 2013).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

 


Geographic range

The species is distributed in temperate decidious forests of Europe and West Asia (Palearctic region), strictly following the distribution of Quercus robur. In Europe the countries with most reports are Sweden and the United Kingdom, probably due to the relatively high occurrences of large oak trees in these countries. The European, (global?) stronghold for this species is definitely the former royal hunting forest in England (Windsor Crown Estate) where 100 oaks are known to be occupied by this fungus (since 1998). This is roughly half the total number recorded for the UK as a whole (since 1960).


Population and Trends

Buglossoporus quercinus is estimated to be present in ca. 350 localities in Europe (incl. estimated unrecorded localities). It is rare throughout its distribution range. The number of individuals estimated to exist in Europe is c. 3500. The global population is estimated not to exceed 500 locations. Its potential distribution area is large, but the scarceness of ancient Quercus trees in semi-open situations is a limiting factor for its presence. As ancient oak woodlands have disappeared to large extent during the past 100 years, populations of B. quercinus have decreased similarily. A cautious estimate of this habitat loss is 30-50% in a 100y perspective. Furthermore, the survivial of B. quercinus in future is challenged by the scarcity and long time-scale of large ancient oak trees able to fill in the generation-gap of veteran trees.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Buglossoporus quercinus is a polypore associated with a central brown heart rot of oak. Its basidiomata are frequently associated with large old oak trees (Quercus spp.) and it primarily occurs in relatively open habitats such as pasture woodland, parkland and other mosaic deciduous forests. Fruiting occurs on dead wood of living trees and on snags and fallen wood, especially on larger diameter elements. This species has been stated to fruit only on trees older than 250 years (Crockatt 2008), but it has been observed fruiting on younger trees with exposed heartwood (i.e. veteran but not necessarily ancient oaks) under special circumstances (i.e. in core populations with small oak pollards or oaks that have been damaged when young and surrounded by relatively large and thriving populations of the fungus).

Temperate Forest

Threats

The main threat to B. quercinus is the rapid decrease of suitable host trees (Quercus, usually Q. robur) by forestry or changes in land management. Most of the still existing large oak tree areas in Europe have historically been used as grazed woodlands (pasture woodland) resulting in a semi-open environment. Death of large oak trees is accelerated by the decrease of grazing in pastoral landscapes (dense growth of competing understory trees and shrubs), change of land use to agriculture (ploughing close to trees, damage and trampling due to animal stocking density), to conifer forestry or to use as golf courses. In some areas cessation of pollarding could result in hastened death of oak trees. Habitat fragmentation might well be an additional threat that is increasing. Small population size make the species very susceptible for random events and local extinctions due to generation-gap in suitable host trees.

Residential & commercial developmentShifting agricultureUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

Site protection and habitat management is urgently needed for localities. management plans must include proper clearing around veteran oaks harbouring B. quercinus in order to prolong the lifespan of oak trees. In some cases, a periodical pollarding can ensure a longer life of oak trees but caution is advised when starting to restore management of lapsed pollards. Fallen dead branches (often removed esp. in parks)  should be left in situ or moved to less formally managed areas to allow the fungus to fruit. Focusing on demography of oak population is very important, i.e. favouring younger oaks of different age classes as B. quercinus requires a continuous supply of ancient and/or veteran host trees in order to fruit.

Site/area protectionSite/area management

Research needed

Find figures as to the habitat decline. Species proposed as redlisted earlier on the European level. Population genetic research across Europe is needed as a preliminary limited study (using somatic incompatibility testing in UK) suggested that many genets may be genetically rather similar to each other (historical bottleneck?). Test the hypothesis that each occupied oak is inhabited by a single genet which can then fragment to several ramets as occupied branches and trunks fall to the ground. Phylogenetic studies are desirable to investigate conspecificity of the Japanese population. At least some Japanese records were confused with Laccocephalum hartmanii (fide T. Hattori).

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Ainsworth, A.M. 2008. Surveys, strongholds and revised red listing of the legally protected wood-inhabiting fungi oak polypore Piptoporus quercinus and bearded tooth Hericium erinaceus. Unpubl. Report for Natural England, Peterborough.

Ainsworth, A.M. 2017. Non-lichenised fungi. In: Ancient oaks in the English landscape (A. Farjon), RBG Kew.

Binder, M.; Justo, A.; Riley, R.; Salamov, A.; Lopez-Giraldez, F.; Sjökvist, E.; Copeland, A.; Foster, B.; Sun, H.; Larsson, E.; Larsson, K.-H.; Townsend, J.; Grigoriev, I.V. & Hibbett, D.S. 2013. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic overview of the Polyporales. Mycologia 105(6):1350-73.

Calonge, F.D.; García, A.; Sanz, M.; Bastardo, J. 2003. Buglossoporus quercinus (Basidiomycotina, Coriolaceae), nueva cita para España. Bol. Soc. Micol. Madrid 27: 33-35.

Crockatt, M. 2008. Ecology of the rare oak polypore Piptoporus quercinus
and the tooth fungi Hericium cirrhatum. H. coralloides. and H. erinaceus in the UK. Ph. D. dissertation. Proquest. LLC. University of Cardiff.

Farjon, A. 2017. Ancient oaks in the English landscape.  RBG Kew.

Han, M.L., Chen, Y.Y., Shen, L.L., Song, J., Vlasák, J., Dai, Y.C., Cui, B.K. 2016. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the brown-rot fungi: Fomitopsis and its related genera. Fungal Diversity 80(1): 343-373. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-016-0364-y

Ryvarden, L., Gilbertson, R.L. 1994. European Polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 7. Fungiflora, Oslo.

Shiryaev A.G., Kotiranta H., Mukhin V.A., Stavischenko I.V., Ushakova N.V. Aphyllophoroid fungi of Sverdlovsk region, Russia: Biodiversity, Distribution, Ecology and The IUCN Threat Categories. - Ekaterinburg: Goshchtskiy Publichsher, 2009. - 304 p.

Sunhede, S. & Vasiliauskas, R. 2003. Hotade tickor på ek i Litauen. [Threatened polypores on oak in Lithuania.] – Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 97: 252–265. Uppsala. 0039-646X.

Szabó, I. 2012. Poroid fungi of Hungary in the collection of Zoltán Igmándy. Acta Silv. Lign. Hung., Vol. 8:113–122

Бондарцева М.А. Определитель грибов России. Порядок афиллофоровые. Вып. 2 –  СПб. : Наука, 1998. – 391 с.
Сафонов М.А. Редкие виды грибов Оренбургской области: проблемы выявления, изучения и охраны. - Оренбург: Изд-во ОГПУ, 2003. – 100 с.
Волоснова Л.Ф. Афиллофоровые грибы Окского заповедника // Новости систематики низших растений. 2007. Т. 41. С. 101-115.
Светлова Т.В., Змитрович И.В. Трутовики и другие деревообитающие афиллофоровые грибы http://mycoweb.narod.ru/fungi/ODG/ODG30.html#1.4.15.2.
Сарычева Л.А. Сведения о распространении редких видов грибов и растений Липецкой области (по результатам работ 2012 г.) // Состояние редких видов растений и животных Липецкой области : информационный сборник материалов. Вып. 5. – Воронеж : Научная книга, 2012. – С. 97-111.
Красная Книга Челябинской области: животные, растения, грибы /Министерство по радиационной и экологической безопасности Челябинской области, Ин-т экологии растений и животных УрО РАН. –  Екатеринбург: Изд-во Урал. ун-та, 2005. – 450 с
Красная книга Липецкой области. Т. I. Растения, грибы, лишайники. Изд. 2-е, перераб. / под ред. А.В. Щербакова. – Липецк: ООО «Веда социум», 2014. – 696 с.
Красная книга Республики Адыгея: Редкие и находящиеся под угрозой исчезновения объекты животного и растительного мира: Часть 1: Введение. Растения и грибы / Упр. по охране окружающей среды, природ. ресурсам и чрезв. ситуациям Респ. Адыгея; отв. ред. А. С. Замотайлов. — 2-е изд. — Майкоп: Качество, 2012. — 340 с.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted