• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • Assessed
  • VUPublished

Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst.

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Scientific name
Hydnellum compactum
Author
(Pers.) P. Karst.
Common names
kompakt taggsvamp
Myk brunpigg
jelenkovka tuhá
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Thelephorales
Family
Bankeraceae
Assessment status
Published
IUCN Red List Category
VU A2ace; C2a(i)
Proposed by
Anders Dahlberg
Assessors
Johan Nitare
Contributors
Anders Dahlberg, Ivona Kautmanova, Tommy Knutsson
Comments etc.
Martyn Ainsworth, Ibai Olariaga Ibarguren

Assessment Status Notes

Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Hydnellum compactum is a very rare hydnoid mycorrhiza species occuring in boreonemoral-nemoral broadleaved forests in Europe. Its population is very small and estimated to have declined. This inferred and observed decline is mainly due to modern forestry – the species disappears after clear-cutting. Usually, the fungus indicates remnants of old oak or beech forest ecosystems in very special sites of major importance for biodiversity. (Johan Nitare)
Number of localities estimated to be less than 200 (incl. possible but unrecorded occurences) but exact figures not known. Very few mature individuals in each locality, most often only a few mycelium. Considered extinct and in serious decline in several European countries.Using templates (Dahlberg & Mueller) estimated no. of mature individuals in Europe is less than 4000 and no. of mature individuals in each subpopulation much less than 250 giving EN-VU using C1, C2a(i).


Geographic range

Temperate Europe. Many records (often old) from several countries in central and south Europe, e.g. Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Spain, France, Austria, Poland, Slovakia, Croatia and Italy. In Scandinavia it is found in the southern coast of Norway, south and southwest Sweden, but not in Finland or Denmark.


Population and Trends

Number of localities estimated to be less than 200 (incl. possible but unrecorded occurences) but exact figures not known. Very few mature individuals in each locality, most often only a few mycelium. Considered extinct and in serious decline in several European countries.Using templates (Dahlberg & Mueller) estimated no. of mature individuals in Europe is less than 4000 and no. of mature individuals in each subpopulation much less than 250 giving EN-VU using C1, C2a(i).

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

Ectomycorrhizal hydnoid fungus growing with Sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and Beech (Fagus sylvatica) in boreonemoral-nemoral forests, in some areas maybe also with Castanea. Thermophilic and only found in microclimatically favourable forests. The fungus appear as a relict species in areas with long ecological continuity and show none-very low ability of dispersal into younger forest stands. Individual mycelia can probably be very old.

Temperate Forest

Threats

Hydnellum compactum has decreased strongly in Europe during the last decades. Main threat is logging destroying or severely changing the habitat of the fungus. The species seems to be favoured by long continuity of Quercus or Fagus (e.g. ancient woodlands). This habitat is rapidly decreasing in northern Europe being replaced with other, often single tree species stands of similar aged trees. There are no records from plantations and the species seems to disappear totally after felling of host trees. Hydnellum compactum seems to prefer sunny, mosaic forest stands with old trees and a secondary threat is that the localities now has been abandoned from earlier extensive grazing and selective tree-felling, resulting in more shady and dense habitats. Its occurrence as very small, fragmented and isolated populations in remnant forest ecosystem also poses a threat in itself, e.g. through accidentally exploitation.


Conservation Actions

Protection of all known localities together with appropriate management plans for termophilic decidious forest stands.

Site/area protectionSite/area management

Research needed

Critical revision of old collections. Other species of Hydnellum have often been misidentified as ”compactum” and the number of localities for the species might be even smaller than earlier suspected..
Molecular data suggest that it might also be present in N. America but this requires further investigation.


Bibliography

Arnolds, E. 2003. De Stekelzwammen en Pruikzwammen van Nederland en België. Coolia 46 (3), suppl.
Brandrud, T.E. 1986. Det sørlige og sørøstlige edelløvskogselement blant jordboende storsopper i Norge. Agarica 7, nr. 14: 210‒220.
Brandrud, T.E. 2007. Rødlistearter av sopp knyttet til edellauvskog; habitatkrav, hotspothabitater og utbredelsesmønstre. Agarica 27: 91‒109.
Brandrud, T.E., Dahl, T.H. & Fonneland, I.l. 2000. Sørlandssopper. Blekksoppen 28, nr 80: 12‒21,
Gulden, G. & Hanssen, E.W. 1992a. Jordboende piggsopper i Norge. Del 5. Fire Hydnellum‒arter. Blekksoppen 20, nr 57: 16‒23.
Gulden, G. & Hanssen, E.W. 1992b. Distribution and ecology of stipitate hydnaceous fungi in Norway, with special reference to the question of decline. Sommerfeltia 13: 1‒58.
Maas Geesteranus, R.A. 1975. Die terrestrischen Stachelpilze Europas. Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk. Tweede Reeks, Deel 65. Amsterdam/London.
Otto, P. 1992. Verbreitung und Ruckgang der terrestrichen Stachelpilze Ostdeutschlands. Gleditschia 20: 153-202


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted