• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Fuscoporia inonotoides Bittencourt & Drechsler-Santos

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Scientific name
Fuscoporia inonotoides
Author
Bittencourt & Drechsler-Santos
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Hymenochaetales
Family
Hymenochaetaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU C2a(ii)
Proposed by
Gregory Mueller
Assessors
Felipe Bittencourt, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Thiago Kossmann, Kelmer Martins da Cunha
Contributors
Michael Krikorev
Comments etc.
MIND.Funga Initiative
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Fuscoporia inonotoides is only known from Cloud Forests of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Cloud Forests of this domain are restricted to small sized and fragmented patches, and are dependent on rare microclimatic conditions (Bruijnzeel et al. 2010, Oliveira et al. 2014), making it one of the most susceptible ecosystems to threats caused by climate change (Salazar et al. 2007, Williams et al. 2007, Goldsmith et al. 2013, Gotsch et al. 2014, Pompeu et al. 2014). In addition to habitat change and reduction due to climate change these forests are threatened by human activities such as cattle grazing, introduction of invasive species, anthropogenic fire and land use changes (Brooks & Balmford 1996, Tabarelli et al. 2006, Pinto et al. 2006) resulting in a continuous decline in quality and area of the required habitat for F. inonotoides, even in Protected Areas. The species is assessed as Vulnerable.


Taxonomic notes

Fuscoporia inonotoides is morphologically and phylogenetically related to the Fuscoporia gilva complex.  The publication proposing this taxon has been submitted. Mycobank MB 833683.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Fuscoporia inonotoides is a polyporoid fungus that frequently grows in clusters. It has bright yellowish colors in basidiomata, making the species rather conspicuous in the field. It was discovered very recently during surveys in the Cloud Forests and associated vegetations of Southern Brazil, and there are only 10 collections. The Cloud Forests are under an array of various threats for being a naturally small and fragmented vegetation, very susceptible to threats. In Southern Brazil the Cloud Forests are part of the Atlantic Forest domain, one of the Hotspots for conservation. Although it is possible that this species occurs in other fragments of Cloud Forests in Brazil, we expect that the population of this species is very small and restricted.

Fuscoporia inonotoides is assessed as Vulnerable (VU) C2a(ii), having an inferred population of 10.000 mature individuals.


Geographic range

Fuscoporia inonotoides is currently known only from Cloud Forests of the Atlantic Forest vegetational domain, Southern Brazil. It is also expected to be found in other Cloud Forests fragments scattered throughout south and southeastern Brazil.


Population and Trends

Fuscoporia inonotoides is a conspicuous bracket fungus, but there are only ten collections from a single site in the Cloud Forest of the Atlantic Forest vegetation domain in Southern Brazil. It is possible that this species also occurs in other Cloud Forest patches of southern and southeastern Brazil. Regarded as a biodiversity hotspot, the Atlantic Forest domain is considered a high-priority environment for conservation actions due to its high diversity, endemism rates and habitat loss (Myers et al. 2000). Cloud Forests of this domain are restricted to small sized patches, and are dependent on rare microclimatic conditions (Bruijnzeel et al. 2010, Oliveira et al. 2014), making it one of the most susceptible ecosystems to threats caused by climate change (Salazar et al. 2007, Williams et al. 2007, Goldsmith et al. 2013, Gotsch et al. 2014, Pompeu et al. 2014). Moreover, data from the current status of forest coverage (e.g., in Santa Catarina) shows that the mixed needle-broadleaved Araucaria forest, where most areas of Cloud Forests are found, is highly fragmented, with only 21% of forest coverage remaining. Patches of 50 ha or less represent 82% of these remaining forests (Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica 2009, Vibrans et al. 2013). Fuscoporia inonotoides can potentially be found at an estimated 100 sites within one subpopulation. Each of these site may support up to 50-100 mature individuals resulting in an estimated total population size of no more than 10,000. Due to the threats facing Cloud Forests in Southern Brazil, including grazing, increased fire frequency, and shrinking of habitat due to reduced rainfall as a result of climate change, the population is expected to continue to decline by 10-20%  over the next three generations, driven mainly by loss of required habitat.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Fuscoporia inonotoides grows on dead wood and on trunks of living angiosperms (i.e. Myrceugenia spp.). It is restricted to Cloud Forests of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in southern and possibly southeastern Brazil.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

Fuscoporia inonotoides occurs in Cloud Forests of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. These forest patches are threatened by human activities such as cattle grazing, introduction of invasive species, anthropogenic fire and land use changes (Brooks & Balmford 1996, Tabarelli et al. 2006, Pinto et al. 2006) plus changes in temperature and moisture due to climate change (Salazar et al. 2007, Williams et al. 2007, Goldsmith et al. 2013, Gotsch et al. 2014, Pompeu et al. 2014), resulting in a continuous decline of its required habitat, even in Protected Areas.

Small-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingIncrease in fire frequency/intensityUnspecified speciesHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

Even though the only known site where F. inonotoides is found is in a protected area, much of its potential habitat faces anthropogenic-related threats. Enforcement of the conservation and protection of known sites, as well as unprotected Cloud Forests fragments in Brazil are needed.

Site/area protectionNational levelNational levelSub-national level

Research needed

Additional surveys in other sites of Cloud Forest in southern and southeastern Brazil are needed to understand its distribution and possible host specialization. Revision of herbarium specimens may also reveal additional records of this species.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

None known.


Bibliography

Bittencourt F, Costa-Rezente DH, Góes-Neto A, Drechsler-Santos ER (2020) A new species of Fuscoporia Murrill (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) with monodimitic hyphal system in the Cloud Forests of Southern Brazil. Unpublished.
Brooks T, Balmford A (1996) Atlantic forest extinctions. Nature 380: 115.
Bruijnzeel L, Kappelle M, Mulligan M, Scatena F (2010) Tropical Montane Cloud Forest: Science for Conservation and Management. In: Bruijnzeel L, Scatena FN, Hamilton LS (eds) Sustainability perspectives in a changing world. Cambridge University Press, pp 691-740.
Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica (2009) Atlas dos remanescentes florestais da Mata 822 Atlântica, período 2005 2008. Relatório Final. São Paulo. Fundação SOS Mata 823 Atlântica/Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais.
Goldsmith GR, Matzke NJ, Dawson TE (2013) The incidence and implications of 909 clouds for cloud forest plant water relations. Ecol Lett 16: 307-314
Gotsch SG, Asbjornsen H, Holwerda F, et al (2014) Foggy days and dry nights 911 determine crown-level water balance in a seasonal tropical montane cloud forest. 912 Plant Cell Environ 37: 261-272
Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GA, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403(6772): 853-858.
Oliveira RS, Eller CB, Bittencourt PRL, Mulligan M (2014) The hydroclimatic and 976 ecophysiological basis of cloud forest distributions under current and projected 977 climates. Ann Bot 113: 909-920.
Pinto LP, Bede LC, Paese A, Fonseca M, Paglia AP, Lamas I (2006) Mata Atlântica brasileira: Os desafios para a conservação da biodiversidade de um hotspot mundial. In: Rocha CFD, Bergallo HG, Sluys MV, Alves MAS. Biologia da conservação: Essências (ed. 1). Rima Editora. 91-118.
Pompeu PV, Fontes MAL, Santos RM Dos, et al (2014) Floristic composition and 989 structure of an upper montane cloud forest in the Serra da Mantiqueira Mountain 990 Range of Brazil. Acta Bot Brasilica 28: 456-464.
Salazar LF, Nobre CA, Oyama MD (2007) Climate change consequences on the biome distribution in tropical South America. Geophysical Research Letters 34(9).
Tabarelli M, Aguiar A, Grillo A, Santos A (2006) Fragmentação e Perda de Habitats na Mata Atlântica ao Norte do Rio São Francisco. In: Siqueira-Filho, JA, Leme, EMC. Fragmentos de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste: Biodiversidade, Conservação e suas Bromélias. Andrea Jacobsson Estúdio Editorial. 80-99.
Vibrans AC, McRoberts RE, Lingner DV, et al (2013) Extensão original e remanescentes da Floresta Ombrófila Mista em Santa Catarina. In: Vibrans AC, Sevegnani L, Gasper AL, Lingner DV (eds) Inventário Florístico Florestal de Santa 1057 Catarina Volume III: Floresta Ombrófila Mista. Edifurb, Blumenau. 25-31.
Williams JW, Jackson ST, Kutzbach JE (2007) Projected distributions of novel and 1080 disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 5738-5742.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted