• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • 5Published

Fomitiporia nubicola Alves-Silva, Bittencourt & Drechsler-Santos

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Scientific name
Fomitiporia nubicola
Author
Alves-Silva, Bittencourt & Drechsler-Santos
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Hymenochaetales
Family
Hymenochaetaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU C2a(ii)
Proposed by
MIND.Funga Initiative
Assessors
Genivaldo Alves-Silva, Felipe Bittencourt, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Thiago Kossmann, Kelmer Martins da Cunha
Comments etc.
MIND.Funga Initiative, James Westrip
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Fomitiporia nubicola is a wood-inhabiting bracket fungus, known to grow only on Drimys angustifolia, a relic plant species found exclusively in small patches of fragmented cloud forests (mostly >1,000m asl) in southern and south-eastern Brazil. Cloud forests of this domain are dependent on rare microclimatic conditions (Bruijnzeel et al. 2010, Oliveira et al. 2014), making it one of the most susceptible ecosystems to threats caused by climate change (Salazar et al. 2007, Williams et al. 2007, Goldsmith et al. 2013, Gotsch et al. 2014, Pompeu et al. 2014). Cloud Forests of southern Brazil are also threatened by human activities such as cattle grazing, introduction of invasive species, anthropogenic fire and land use changes (Brooks and Balmford 1996, Tabarelli et al. 2006, Pinto et al. 2006), resulting in ongoing declines of this habitat, even in Protected Areas. Fomitiporia nubicola is currently known from only two sites, both in Santa Catarina state, but is expected to be found at up to 100 sites, each potentially containing around 50-100 mature individuals for a total of no more than 10,000 mature individuals all within one subpopulation. Due to the continued expected loss of required habitat, Fomitiporia nubicola is inferred to undergo an additional 15-20% reduction in the next 50 years (3 generations), driven mainly by degradation of its required habitat and impacts of climate change. It is assessed as Vulnerable.


Taxonomic notes

Fomitiporia nubicola is part of the Fomitiporia apiahyna complex (Vlasák and Kout 2011; Amalfi and Decock 2013), being macro- and micromorphologically difficult to discriminate, but eco-geographically distinct from other taxa (Alves-Silva et al. 2020). Its epithet refers to its habitat, as it is restricted to Cloud Forests associated with Drimys which distinguishes it from morphologically similar species.  MycoBank MB835300


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Fomitiporia nubicola is a wood-inhabitant polypore that grows exclusively on Drimys (Winteraceae), likely specific on D. angustifolia, a relic plant species distributed exclusively in fragmented forests of high altitude areas in southern-southeastern Brazil. Up to now, F. nubicola is currently known from altitudinal Cloud Forest, mostly at 1,500– 1,720 m asl, Serra Geral, Araucaria Forest province, but also at 850 m asl in Serra de Itajaí, Rodeio, Atlantic province, Santa Catarina state, Brazil.
It is expected that the species occurs in high altitude Forestal formations (Cloud forests), following its host/habitat distribution, in southern Brazil. It is well known that Tropical Montane Cloud Forests are threatened and in decline by its highly susceptible microclimatic wrapping and by anthropic activities and climate change.
Fomitiporia nubicola is assessed as Vunerable (VU) under criterion C2a(ii).


Geographic range

Fomitiporia nubicola is a wood-inhabiting species found only on Drimys angustifolia, a relic plant species occurring exclusively in fragmented montane forests (mostly >1,000m asl) in southern and south-eastern Brazil. Fomitiporia nubicola is known only from two sites in Santa Catarina state, in the high Itajaí Valley and the highlands of Aparados da Serra Geral, in São Joaquim National Park. The species likely also occurs in other areas of cloud forest in the Atlantic Forest domain, following its host/habitat distribution, from Rio Grande do Sul state in the south, to Minas Gerais state in south-eastern Brazil, the known northern limit of the host plant. These high altitude forests have a fragmented and patchy distribution.


Population and Trends

The species is currently known from 2 sites and no more than 30 collections. It is very conspicuous and found growing on large living and dead standing trunks of Drimys (Winteraceae), likely specific on D. angustifolia, a relic plant species found exclusively in fragmented montane forests (especially cloud forests) in southern and south-eastern Brazil. Despite the extensive studies on polypores from cloud forests of southern Brazil and the conspicuous appearance of the species, it has only been described recently, as only recent DNA based analyses confirmed its delimitation within the F. apiahyana complex. The species’ distribution is expected to match that of its host, being endemic to fragments of cloud forest in the Atlantic Forest of southern and south-eastern Brazil. The habitat where it is found is now much rarer than it was in the past, as the Atlantic Forest is now reduced to 28% of what it once was, with the remaining areas being mostly fragmented and not fully mature (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018). Cloud forests of this domain are restricted to small sized patches, and are dependent on rare microclimatic conditions (Bruijnzeel et al. 2010, Oliveira et al. 2014), making it one of the most susceptible ecosystems to threats caused by climate change (Salazar et al. 2007, Williams et al. 2007, Goldsmith et al. 2013, Gotsch et al. 2014, Pompeu et al. 2014). Moreover, data from the current status of forest coverage (e.g. in Santa Catarina) shows that the mixed needle-broadleaved Araucaria forest, where most areas of cloud forests are found, is highly fragmented, with only 21% of forest coverage remaining. Patches of 50 ha or less represent 82% of these remaining forests (Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica 2009, Vibrans et al. 2012). Cloud forests of southern Brazil are also threatened by human activities such as cattle grazing, introduction of invasive species, anthropogenic fire and land use changes (Brooks and Balmford 1996, Tabarelli et al. 2006, Pinto et al. 2006), resulting in a continuous decline of this habitat, even in Protected Areas. Although F. nubicola is currently known from only two sites, both in Santa Catarina state, it can potentially be found at up to 100 sites throughout it’s host’s range. Each site can potentially host 50–100 mature individuals resulting in a total estimated population size of up to 10,000 mature individuals, all within one subpopulation. Due to the expected loss of of required habitat, F. nubicola is inferred to undergo an additional 15–20% reduction in the next 50 years (3 generations), driven mainly by degradation of the habitat and impacts of climate change.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

The species is a wood-inhabiting saprotroph, growing on large living and dead standing trunks of D. angustifolia, a relictual plant species of the Winteraceae, endemic to cloud forests fragments of high altitude areas in southern and south-eastern Brazil. The fungus is expected to occur throughout its host’s distribution.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

Fomitiporia nubicola is an endemic species restricted to cloud forests of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Cloud forests of this domain are restricted to small, fragmented patches, and are dependent on rare microclimatic conditions (Bruijnzeel et al. 2010, Oliveira et al. 2014), making it one of the most susceptible ecosystems to threats caused by climate change (Salazar et al. 2007, Williams et al. 2007, Goldsmith et al. 2013, Gotsch et al. 2014, Pompeu et al. 2014). This habitat is also threatened by human activities such as cattle grazing, introduction of invasive species, anthropogenic fire and land use changes (Brooks and Balmford 1996, Tabarelli et al. 2006, Pinto et al. 2006), resulting in a continuous decline of this habitat, even in Protected Areas. The loss of required habitat directly threatens this species.

Small-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingIncrease in fire frequency/intensityUnspecified speciesHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

The main action to prevent the decline of the species is the protection of its habitat by the establishment, and appropriate management, of conservation units and the enforcement of public policies to recover and protect the cloud forests of southern and south-east Brazil.

Site/area protectionNational levelNational level

Research needed

More surveys are needed to better understand the species’ distribution, as well as to confirm its host specificity and phenology.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

None known.


Bibliography

Amalfi, M. and Decock, C. (2013) Fomitiporia castilloi sp. nov. and multiple clades around F. apiahyna and F. texana in Meso- and South America evidenced by multiloci phylogenetic inferences. Mycologia 105:873–887. https://doi.org/10.3852/11-423

Brooks T, Balmford A (1996) Atlantic forest extinctions. Nature 380: 115.

Bruijnzeel, L., Kappelle, M., Mulligan, M. and Scatena, F. (2010) Tropical Montane Cloud Forest: Science for Conservation and Management. In: Bruijnzeel, L., Scatena, F.N. and Hamilton, L.S. (eds) Sustainability perspectives in a changing world. Cambridge University Press, pp 691–740

Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica (2009) Atlas dos remanescentes florestais da Mata 822 Atlântica, período 2005 2008. Relatório Final. São Paulo. Fundação SOS Mata 823 Atlântica/Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais

Goldsmith, G.R., Matzke, N.J. and Dawson, T.E. (2013) The incidence and implications of 909 clouds for cloud forest plant water relations. Ecol Lett 16:307 314

Gotsch SG, Asbjornsen H, Holwerda F, et al (2014) Foggy days and dry nights determine crown-level water balance in a seasonal tropical montane cloud forest. Plant Cell Environ 37:261 272

Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GA, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403(6772): 853-858.

Oliveira-Filho, A.T., 2015. Um sistema de classificação fisionômico-ecológico da vegetação neotropical: segunda aproximação, in: Eisenlohr, P. V., Felfili, J.M., Melo, M.M.R.F., Andrade, L.A., Meira‐Neto, J.A.A. (Eds.), Fitossociologia No Brasil: Métodos e Estudos de Casos, Vol. 2. Editora UFV, Viçosa, Brasil, pp. 452–473.

Oliveira, R.S., Eller, C.B., Bittencourt, P.R.L. and Mulligan, M. (2014) The hydroclimatic and ecophysiological basis of cloud forest distributions under current and projected climates. Ann Bot 113:909 920. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcu060

Pinto LP, Bede LC, Paese A, Fonseca M, Paglia AP, Lamas I (2006) Mata Atlântica brasileira: Os desafios para a conservação da biodiversidade de um hotspot mundial. In: Rocha CFD, Bergallo HG, Sluys MV, Alves MAS. Biologia da conservação: Essências (ed. 1). Rima Editora. 91-118.

Pompeu PV, Fontes MAL, Santos RM Dos, et al (2014) Floristic composition and structure of an upper montane cloud forest in the Serra da Mantiqueira Mountain Range of Brazil. Acta Bot Brasilica 28:456 464. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102- 991 33062014abb3239

Rezende CL, Scarano FR, Assad ED, Joly CA, Metzger JP, Strassburg BBN, Tabarelli M, Fonseca GA, Mittermeier RA (2018) From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 16(4): 208-214.

Salazar LF, Nobre CA, Oyama MD (2007) Climate change consequences on the biome distribution in tropical South America. Geophysical Research Letters 34(9).

Tabarelli M, Aguiar A, Grillo A, Santos A (2006) Fragmentação e Perda de Habitats na Mata Atlântica ao Norte do Rio São Francisco. In: Siqueira-Filho, JA, Leme, EMC. Fragmentos de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste: Biodiversidade, Conservação e suas Bromélias. Andrea Jacobsson Estúdio Editorial. 80-99.

Vibrans, A.C., McRoberts, R.E., Lingner, D.V., Moser, P. and Nicoletti, A. 2012. Extensão original e remanescentes da Floresta Estacional Decidual em Santa Catarina. In: Vibrans, A.C., Sevegnani, L., Gasper, A.L. and Lingner, D.V. (eds.). Inventário Florístico Florestal de Santa Catarina, Vol. II, Floresta Estacional Decidual. Blumenau, Edifurb. Pp. 25-31

Vlasák, J. and Kout, J. (2011) Pileate Fomitiporia species in the USA. New combinations Fomitiporia calkinsii and F. bakeri. Mycol Prog 10:445–452. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-010-0715-0

Williams JW, Jackson ST, Kutzbach JE (2007) Projected distributions of novel and 1080 disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:5738 5742


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted