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Amanita sepultipes N. Vargas & S. Restrepo

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Scientific name
Amanita sepultipes
Author
N. Vargas & S. Restrepo
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Amanitaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2020-04-28
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
A4c
Assessors
Vargas-Estupiñan, N., Benjumea, C., Corrales, A., Gomez-Montoya, N., Peña-Cañón, R. & Vasco-Palacios, A.M.
Reviewers
Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/174797136/179540675

Justification

Amanita sepultipes is known only from Colombia where it forms ectomycorrhizas with Quercus humboldtii in wet montane oak dominated forests. As Amanita sepultipes is an obligate mycorrhizal fungus, it is directly impacted by a decline in its hosts. There is no direct information that the population of this species has declined, but a significant decline is inferred due to extensive past and ongoing habitat loss and decline in habitat quality. In Colombia, there has been a nearly 42% loss of Quercus humboldtii populations, and the tree is listed as vulnerable (VU A2cd) in Colombia (Cardenas and Salinas 2007). Deforestation in Colombia has increased in recent years and is anticipated to continue into the future. Due to its restricted distribution and to past significant loss of its hosts, and projected continued loss, the ongoing decline for the population of A. sepultipes is suspected to be between 35%-50%. Therefore, it is listed as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic notes

Amanita sepultipes is a recently described species from Colombia in the section Vaginatae (Subgenus Amanita) described from Colombian material (NVE-G2, NVE-399,  Holotype ANDES_F).

Geographic range

Amanita sepultipes is endemic to Colombia, distributed in the Department of Santander- Municipio de El Peñón growing at 2,690 m asl and in the Department of Boyacá- Municipio de Arcabuco at 2,700 m asl. El Peñon is part of a large karst massif where caves develop (Lasso et al. 2019). It may also occur in other oak dominated forests distributed in Colombian Andean mountains above 2,600 m asl.

Population and Trends

Amanita sepultipes has a solitary habit. In Colombia, two carpophores have been collected in the eastern Andean mountains, one each in the departments of Santander and Boyacá. The specimens are deposited in the ANDES_F fungal collection - Universidad de los Andes. These are the only records of the species indicating that it is rarely encountered and that it is likely restricted to native oak forests above 2,600 m asl.

As Amanita sepultipes is an obligate mycorrhizal fungus, it is directly impacted by a decline in its host. There is no direct information that the population of this species has declined, but a significant decline is inferred due to extensive past and ongoing habitat loss and decline in habitat quality. In Colombia, there has been a nearly 42% loss of Quercus humboldtii populations, and the tree is listed as vulnerable (VU A2cd) in Colombia (Cardenas and Salinas 2007). Deforestation in Colombia has increased in recent years and is anticipated to continue into the future. Due to its restricted distribution, past significant loss of its hosts and projected continued loss of its host, the ongoing decline for the population of A. sepultipes is suspected to be between 35%-50% over three generations.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Amanita sepultipes is known only from Colombia where it forms ectomycorrhizas with Quercus humboldtii in wet montane oak dominated forests above 2,600 m asl.

Threats

As Amanita sepultipes is an obligate mycorrhizal fungus, it is directly impacted by a decline in its hosts. In Colombia, around 40% of the territory has been transformed due to population increase and changes in land use (Avella and Rangel 2016). In the Colombian Andean region, deforestation has transformed at least 60% of the original ecosystem, and has significantly reduced the area of Quercus humboldtti forests (Avella and Rangel 2016).  Anthropogenic pressure on oak forests and habitat degradation is mainly due to deforestation due to land use change, logging, and urbanization. In addition, timber extraction carried out for the production of charcoal in the past and continued use of wood for construction of houses and furniture has significantly negatively impacted oak populations (Cárdenas and Salinas 2007, Nieto and Rodriguez 2010).

Conservation Actions

Protecting native oak ecosystems and enabling forests to regenerate that have suffered habitat loss is needed to avoid a further decline in associated ectomycorrhizal fungi including Amanita sepultipes. Populations of the host tree, Quercus humboldtii, occur in several protected sites, including the slopes of Nevados del Puracé and Huila, Parque Nacional Darién, Los Guacharos National Park, Corredor de Conservación de Robles Guantiva – La Rusia – Iguaque, and biological reserves on private land (Cárdenas and Salinas 2007). However, most of the habitat is unprotected and susceptible to further deforestation or degradation. Fungi are not included in Colombian conservation and biodiversity policies and laws. Encouraging public awareness on the importance of macrofungal diversity and their roles in the ecosystems should be a priority for their protection. Additionally, survey and inventory efforts to better document the distribution of the species are needed.

Use and Trade

The species is not eaten or used.

Source and Citation

Vargas-Estupiñan, N., Benjumea, C., Corrales, A., Gomez-Montoya, N., Peña-Cañón, R. & Vasco-Palacios, A.M. 2020. Amanita sepultipes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T174797136A179540675. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T174797136A179540675.en .Accessed on 1 February 2022

Country occurrence