This species is known from one collection from Guyana, where a tiny fraction of its possible suitable habitat has been surveyed. Potential host plants occur in a large region encompassing parts of Venezuela, northern Brazil and southeast Colombia. This entire region is very under-sampled, being very remote and completely unsurveyed. In total approximately 0.002% of its potential suitable habitat has been surveyed for fungi. It is not possible to estimate population size or trends, EOO, or AOO. Increasing threats from timber and mineral extraction, and land use changes are anticipated, with the potential for these to be rapid if further road construction occurs. It is therefore assessed as Data Deficient, and further survey work in this region is urgently needed.
Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?
Elaphomyces adamizans is found in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana, occurring in forest co-dominated by Pakaraimaea dipterocarpaceae and Dicymbe jenmanii. This species should be considered because of its rarity, geographic endemism, and associations with ECM hosts.
Its currently known distribution is restricted to mixed Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea and Dicymbe jenmanii forests in the Guiana Shield region where it is known from one collection: Pakaraima Mountains, Upper Mazaruni River Basin, ~10 km west of Mt Ayanganna, within 0.5 km of a base camp at 5° 26’ 21.3” N 60° 04’ 43.1” W, 100 m north of base camp.
This entire region is very under-sampled, and there are areas in neighbouring Venezuela, northern Brazil and southeast Colombia with similar habitats but which are very remote and completely unsurveyed.
Population and Trends
It is presently known only from one collection. This study site is one of the only site surveyed for fungi out of a very large area (approximately 500,000 km2) where Dicymbe and Pakaraimaea occur in north tropical South America. It is therefore impossible to estimate its population size or trends with any degree of confidence.
Habitat and Ecology
Elaphomyces adamizans is only known from the type locality in the Upper Mazaruni River Basin of Guyana, where it was found in primary forests, associated with ectomycorrhizal trees Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea and Dicymbe jenmanii. It was recorded semi-emergent in leaf litter (Castellano et al. 2016).
Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Current threats include climate change and small-scale mineral extraction that can cause habitat disturbance and water pollution although these threats are currently not thought to be severe as much of the interior of the region is very remote. Future threats from timber and mineral extraction, and land use changes are anticipated, with the potential for these to be rapid if further road construction occurs. Further impacts of climate change, particularly droughts, are also anticipated.
Mining & quarryingRoads & railroadsUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Habitat shifting & alterationDroughts
No conservation actions are currently in place for this species. Protection of habitat is needed.
Resource & habitat protection
Additional survey work to document the species’ distribution and abundance, taxonomy, and life history are needed: ascertaining the ectomycorrhizal host plant and the animal vector required for spore dispersal will clarify its ecological requirements.
TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology
Use and Trade
There is no known use of this species.
Elaphomyces adamizans collection TH 9660 holotype. Photo: Terry Henkel