• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • ENPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Entoloma chilense (E. Horak) Noordel. & Co-David

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Scientific name
Entoloma chilense
Author
(E. Horak) Noordel. & Co-David
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Entolomataceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN B1ab(iii,iv,v)
Proposed by
Matthew Smith
Assessors
Giuliana Furci, Matthew Smith
Contributors
Pablo Sandoval-Leiva
Comments etc.
Janet Scott
Reviewers
Bryn Dentinger

Assessment Notes

Justification

This species is restricted to highly fragmented Valdivian rainforest in Chile’s coastal range. It has an EOO of approximately 2,000 km2 and the population is severely fragmented. Continuing decline is expected, in the extent of suitable habitat, the number of locations and subpopulations, and the number of mature individuals; as much of the suitable habitat in the area has already been lost and there is a high likelihood of one of the remaining two known sites (neither of which is protected) being lost due to highway construction.


Taxonomic notes

The Basionym of this species is Rhodogaster chilensis (E. Horak, Sydowia 17(1-6): 190 (1964)). The genus Rhodogaster is nested within the Entoloma sensu lato and was transferred to Entoloma by Co-David et al. (Persoonia 23: 166 (2009)).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This species is endemic to Valdivian forests in Chile’s Coastal range but has only been found in the northern reaches of the Valdivian forests near Valdivia. The Valdivian forests of this region are under ongoing and increasing threat due to logging, human-induced fires, grazing and the expansion of pine plantations. These human activities threaten the small known range of this rare species.


Geographic range

This species is rare and has been documented only from two sites in the Valdivian forests of Chile’s coastal range. The type was collected in Valdivian forests very close to the Pacific Ocean near Pucatrihue, Chile (as Fucatrihue in Horak 1964). There are newer collections by Smith, Furci and Sandoval near the Monumento Natural Alerce Costero, Chile. Its EOO is difficult to estimate as there are only two known sites, but taking into account other likely projected areas, it is likely to be in the region of 2,000 km2.


Population and Trends

This species is endemic to the Valdivian rainforest in Chile’s coastal range and has only been documented at two sites. There are very few collections, but it is difficult to detect as has a truffle-like basidioma and therefore it is difficult to estimate its population size with any degree of certainty. However, the population is likely to be in decline, because the coastal Valdivian forests of Chile are a unique ecosystem that is under threat due to logging, burning, grazing, road-building and the expansion of pine plantations. The population is also severely fragmented as its suitable habitat is now restricted to tiny patches.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Entoloma chilense produces basidiomata directly on soil and within leaf litter in Valdivian rainforests. This species has only thus far been documented in the coast range near Valdivia and has not been found further north near Concepción or south of Puerto Montt. The trophic mode of this species is unknown but it is presumed to be saprotrophic.

Temperate Forest

Threats

This species is endemic to Valdivian rainforests that are under threat due to cutting of the forest, increased grazing intensity, coastal highway construction and the expansion of pine plantations in Chile’s coastal range.

Agro-industry plantationsSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingRoads & railroadsUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

Neither of the known sites are within a protected area, although the northern site is close to a National Park, so it is possible that it occurs within a protected area. The conservation implications to this species and others sharing its habitat should be taken into consideration for the planned highway development.

Resource & habitat protection

Research needed

More work is needed to document the distribution of this species and to determine the specific factors that influence its distribution. The exact trophic mode of this species is still not known for sure.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

No use of this species is known.


Bibliography

Horak, E. (1964). Rhodogaster gen. nov.-a new link from Chile towards the Rhodophyllaceae. Sydowia, 17, 190-192.

Co-David, D., Langeveld, D., & Noordeloos, M. E. (2009). Molecular phylogeny and spore evolution of Entolomataceae. Persoonia, 23, 147.

Furci, G. (2018). Hongos de Chile, Volumen II. Fundcion Fungi. 1-315.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted