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Marasmius yanomami J.S. Oliveira & N.K. Ishikawa

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Scientific name
Marasmius yanomami
Author
J.S. Oliveira & N.K. Ishikawa
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Marasmiaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2020-04-03
IUCN Red List Category
DD
Assessors
Neves, M.A. & Ferst, L.
Reviewers
Smith, M. & Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/172678313/172861042

Justification

This species has only been scientifically collected from one site, but is known by the Yanomami people who utilize it for basket making. Its full distribution is very uncertain, as there is no information on its ecological requirements. It is, therefore, also not possible to estimate its population size or trends, and is assessed as Data Deficient.

Geographic range

It occurs in the Yanomami Indigenous land, Maturacá region in the Amazon State. It has only been scientifically collected from one site: lat: 0.554667 long: -66.189333. Further sites in this area are known by the Yanomami people. It is possible that it is found more widely in the Amazon region, but as its ecological requirements are unknown it is not possible to predict other sites at which it could be present, or its extent of occurrence.

Population and Trends

It is a hard to find species due to its small basidiomes and its inconspicuous, long and thin black rhizomorphs. It has been recorded only in the Yanomami Land in the Maturacá region. It is not possible to estimate a total number of sites at which it occurs due to a lack of knowledge regarding its ecological requirements, therefore it is not possible to estimate its population size. The population trend is uncertain: there has so far been quite a slow rate of forest loss in this area, but this may change, and it may also occur in sites with more rapid forest loss.

Population Trend: unknown


Habitat and Ecology

It is a marasmioid, gregarious mushroom that produces rhizomorphs, growing from decomposing wood buried in the litter. The basidiomes usually grow when the rhizomorphs climb up the base of dicotyledonous tree trunks. It is saprotrophic, decomposing rotten wood of dicotyledonous tree in the litter of ombrophylous dense Amazon forest. It is used by birds to make nests: the bird with the Yanomami name kuxiximi is known to use this species, and around 100 bird species use various similar rhizomorphs.

Threats

The Yanomami Indigenous land has been threatened by illegal mining for decades. As a result of gold extraction, the land is suffering from the contamination of the aquatic ecosystems, erosion and topsoil loss. Furthermore, the Amazon has been suffering from deforestation and illegal fires  due to clearing for agriculture, illegal logging, real estate and mining. According to the Amazon Monitoring Program of INPE between 2018 and 2019 there was a substantial increase in these activities. Approximately 17% of the original Amazon vegetation has already been cleared. The rate of forest loss in the area from which it has been recorded has so far been quite slow. However, currently there are decreasing levels of protection of indigenous lands and, therefore, increased threats to the indigenous people, their way of life, and the species they share the forest with.

Conservation Actions

The Yanomami Indigenous land was demarcated and approved by the federal government. Despite this fact, the land is still threatened by deforestation and illegal mining. The maintenance and protection of the Yanomami Indigenous land is essential to preserve the species' habitat. Furthermore, actions are needed such as enforcement of land protection, monitoring of deforestation and mining and resuming and intensifying campaigns to stop and prevent fires. Research is needed to better understand how the species is distributed and its population size and trends. Ecological research is also needed to establish its habitat requirements.

Use and Trade

The rhizomorphs of this species are collected from the forest by Yanomami women of the Maturacá region to adorn their baskets. As described in the book "Përɨsɨ: Përɨsɨyoma pë wãha oni" (Marasmius yanomami: the fungi that yanomami women use to adorn their baskets), they have a system of altering the collection spot to avoid negatively impacting the population.

Source and Citation

Neves, M.A. & Ferst, L. 2020. Marasmius yanomami. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T172678313A172861042. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T172678313A172861042.en .Accessed on 31 January 2022

Country occurrence