• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Phylloporia minuta Bittencourt & Drechsler-Santos

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Scientific name
Phylloporia minuta
Author
Bittencourt & Drechsler-Santos
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Hymenochaetales
Family
Hymenochaetaceae
Assessment status
Proposed
Proposed by
MIND.Funga Initiative
Comments etc.
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, MIND.Funga Initiative

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Phylloporia minuta was described by Bittencourt et al. (2018) after specimens collected in Blumenau, Southern Brazil. Currently, the species has no synonyms. Its epithet refers to the very small size of basidiomata.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Phylloporia minuta is a small parasitic polypore. It was described in 2018 after specimens collected in a Urban Protected Area of Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil, growing on stems of a climbing plant, Doliocarpus schottianus Eichler. It was found again in 2019, on the same host, in another preserved forest area next to the urban area of other municipality, in Santa Catarina states. It is expected that it is a specific parasite of D. schottianus. The known and expected distribution is covered by Atlantic Forest, which is under an array of deforestation, among other threats. More research on neotropical polypores are needed to confirm the potential distribution of this species, its biology and population trends.
Phylloporia minuta is assessed as Vunerable (VU) under criterion C2a(ii).


Geographic range

Phylloporia minuta is a parasitic species so far known to grow exclusively on Doliocarpus schottianus, an endemic climbing plant of the coastal Atlantic Forest of Southern-Southeastern Brazil. It is currently known from a small urban conservation area in the downtown of Blumenau municipality and an experimental area of the University of Joinville municipality, both in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Its distribution is expected to match that of its host, spanning over 1300 Km throughout the coastal Atlantic Forest, from Santa Catarina state, in the South, to Espirito Santo state in Southeast Brazil, being endemic to this area.


Population and Trends

The species is currently known from 2 sites and 11 collections. It is very small (<20 mm), and is found on living stems of climbing plants. The small size and its occurrence on an overlooked substrate are the probable reasons why it has only been recently described, despite the areas where it is known from being historically well sampled. The species inconspicuity make it difficult to find, meaning that it could be more common than the current lack of collections may suggest.
The species distribution is expected to match that of its host’s, spanning over 1300 Km throughout the coastal Atlantic Forest, from Santa Catarina state, in the South, to Espirito Santo state, in the Southeast Brazil.
Its host, Doliocarpus schottianus, is relatively common in pristine, humid forests of the coastal Atlantic Forest. However, the habitat where it is found is now much rarer than it was in the past, as the Atlantic Forest is now reduced to 28% of what it once was, with the remaining areas being mostly fragmented and not fully mature (Rezende 2018). This suggests that in the past the species was probably much more abundant, with its population now being just a fraction of what it once was.
There are an estimated 200 sites of occurrence along its host’s distribution, each containing up to 30-50 mature individuals. Total population size is estimated at no more than 10.000 mature individuals.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

The species is an obligate parasite, growing on young stems of D. schottianus, a climbing plant (Bittencourt et al. 2018) endemic to the Southern-Southeastern coastal Atlantic Forest in humid and mature forests. Doliocarpus schottianus, is selective hygrophyte and sciophyte, frequent in the interior of primary forest (Kubitzki & Reitz 1971). The fungus is expected to occur along its host throughout its distribution, being also endemic to the coastal Atlantic Forest.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

Phylloporia minuta is found in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, regarded as biodiversity Hotspots for conservation priorities due to its high diversity, endemism rates and habitat loss (Myers et al. 2000). This phytogeographical domain is estimated to have only 28% of its vegetation remaining (Rezende et al. 2018). According to Pinto et al. (2006), the Atlantic Forest is in this situation due to predatory exploitation of the resources and human actions, like territorial occupation. About 60% of the Brazilian population lives in the Atlantic Forest, mainly in coastal areas, where the country’s largest cities are located (Rezende et al. 2018). Other threats to the Atlantic Forest include increase in fire frequency and intensity, introduction of invasive species and the connection between these factors (Brooks & Balmford 1996, Tabarelli et al. 2004, Pinto et al. 2006). In some of the urban conservation areas where the species is known from, there are records of acid rain caused by air pollution due to industrial activities, especially near Joinville municipality (XXXXX). Also, reduction and ‘savannization’ of Atlantic Forest is expected due to climate change in the next decades (Salazar et al. 2007).

Housing & urban areasAgro-industry plantationsUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityTrend Unknown/UnrecordedType Unknown/UnrecordedAcid rainHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

The main actions to prevent the decline of the species are the protection of its habitat by the implementation of conservation areas and enforcement of public policies to recover secondary forests. Also, the conservation status of the host plant species should be assessed.

Site/area protectionAwareness & communicationsNational levelPolicies and regulations

Research needed

More surveys are needed to better understand the species distribution, as well as to confirm its host specificity and its phenology. Also, research regarding its host conservation, such as potential threats and its conservation status are needed.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreats

Use and Trade

None known.


Bibliography

Bittencourt F, Stürmer SL, Reck MA, Drechsler-Santos, ER (2018) Phylloporia minuta sp. nov. (Basidiomycota, Hymenochaetales): a remarkable species discovered in a small protected urban area of atlantic forest. Phytotaxa 348(3): 199-210.
Bresadola J (1986) Fungi Brasilienses lecti a cl. Dr. Alfredo Möller. Hedwigia 35(5): 276-302.
Brooks T, Balmford A (1996) Atlantic forest extinctions. Nature 380: 115.
Decock C, Amafi M, Robledo G, Castillo G. (2013) Phylloporia nouraguensis, an undescribed species on Myrtaceae from French Guiana. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 34(1): 15-27.
Ferreira-Lopes VF, Robledo GL, Reck MA, Góes-Neto, AG, Drechsler-Santos, ER (2016) Phylloporia spathulata sensu stricto and two new South American stipitate species of Phylloporia (Hymenochaetaceae). Phytotaxa 257(2): 133-148.
Fraga CN, Paula-Souza J (2015) Dilleniaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Available at http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB7362.
Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica (2018). Atlas dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata Atlântica: Período 2017-2018. Arcplan. 35 p.
Kubitzki K, Reitz R (1971) Dileniáceas. In: Reitz R (Ed.) Flora Ilustrada Catarinense. Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues, Itajaí.
Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GA, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403(6772): 853-858.
Pinto LP, Bede LC, Paese A, Fonseca M, Paglia AP, Lamas I (2006) Mata Atlântica brasileira: Os desafios para a conservação da biodiversidade de um hotspot mundial. In: Rocha CFD, Bergallo HG, Sluys MV, Alves MAS. Biologia da conservação: Essências (ed. 1). Rima Editora. 91-118.
Rezende CL, Scarano FR, Assad ED, Joly CA, Metzger JP, Strassburg BBN, Tabarelli M, Fonseca GA, Mittermeier RA (2018) From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 16(4): 208-214.
Rick J (1931) Monographia hellvellinearum riograndensium. Brotéria, Série Botânica 15: 72-76.
Rivers MC, Bachman SP, Meagher TR, Lughanda EN, Brummitt NA (2010) Subpopulations, locations and fragmentation: applying IUCN red list criteria to herbarium specimen data. Biodiversity and Conservation 19(7): 2071-2085.
Salazar LF, Nobre CA, Oyama MD (2007) Climate change consequences on the biome distribution in tropical South America. Geophysical Research Letters 34(9).
Tabarelli M, Aguiar A, Grillo A, Santos A (2006) Fragmentação e Perda de Habitats na Mata Atlântica ao Norte do Rio São Francisco. In: Siqueira-Filho, JA, Leme, EMC. Fragmentos de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste: Biodiversidade, Conservação e suas Bromélias. Andrea Jacobsson Estúdio Editorial. 80-99.
Valenzuela R, Raymundo T, Cifuentes J, Castillo G, Amalfi M, Decock C (2011) Two undescribed species of Phylloporia from Mexico based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence. Mycological Progress 10: 341-349.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted