• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • Published

Antrodia neotropica Kaipper-Fig., Robledo & Drechsler-Santos

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Scientific name
Antrodia neotropica
Author
Kaipper-Fig., Robledo & Drechsler-Santos
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Fomitopsidaceae
Assessment status
Published
Proposed by
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos
Assessors
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Thiago Kossmann, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Daniela Torres, Aída M. Vasco-Palacios
Editors
Gregory Mueller
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, James Westrip
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Antrodia neotropica is a saprobic, lignicolous polypore fungus that is currently known from only two localities, both in southern Brazil. However, its host species, Baccharis uncinella, has a widespread distribution in the Vassourais of the Serra Geral, so the species is expected to occur other sites in the montane environments of the Atlantic Forest, where the appropriate biotic and abiotic factors occur. Because the species is restricted to these specific and limited habitats, the total number of sites where it can occur is estimated between 12-20. Each site ranges between 20 km² and 100 km² in area and can support between 75-150 mature individuals, with an estimated total population size of 1,000-3,000. The species is threatened by anthropogenic factors, especially fire set by local cattle ranchers and displacement of its host by lowland plants moving into the sits due to warming temperatures. The population is expected to have a 15-25% reduction in the next 25 years (3 generations), driven mainly by degradation of the habitat by fire and cattle grazing in the southern sites and impacts of climate change in the more northerly localities. Therefore, it is listed as Vulnerable.


Taxonomic notes

This species is part of the Antrodia heteromorpha complex, being macromorphologically very difficult to discriminate. It was described in 2016 based on phylogenetic, morphological and ecological data, and can be distinguished by its occurence on Baccharis uncinella, specially in the Vassourais (Kaipper-Figueiró et al. 2016).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Antrodia neotropica is a brown-rot polypore that grows exclusively on Baccharis uncinella shrubs in the Vassourais, a transition formation between High-Altitude Fields and Forestal formations, in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Currently, it is known from two sites, but it is expected to occur along the Serra do Mar and other montaineous region of the Atlantic Coast, following its host/habitat distribution.


Geographic range

This species occurs in mountainous regions of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, in the south to south-eastern region of the Atlantic coast. It is found in montane fields/shrublands usually on mountain tops and highlands (Vasconcelos 2011). It is currently known from two localities in southern Brazil: São Joaquim National Park, Santa Catarina State, and Pró-Mata Center for Research and Nature Conservation, Rio Grande do Sul State. However, the species is expected to occur along with its host, Baccharis uncinella, in the montane fields and shrublands of the Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Caparaó, spanning 1,300 km as far as Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais to the north. Because the species is restricted to these specific and limited habitats, the total number of sites where it can occur is estimated between 12-20. Each site ranges between 20 km² and 100 km² in area and can support between 75-150 mature individuals, with an estimated total population size of 1,000-3,000.

 


Population and Trends

Antrodia neotropica is currently known from two localities in southern Brazil. However, its host species, Baccharis uncinella, has a widespread distribution in the Vassourais of the Serra Geral (CRIA 2020), so the species is expected to match the host’s distribution in the montane environments of the Atlantic Forest, where both the biotic and abiotic factors occur. Because the species is restricted to these specific and limited habitats, the total number of sites where it can occur is estimated between 12-20. Each site ranges between 20 km² and 100 km² in area and can support between 75-150 mature individuals, with an estimated total population size of 1,000-3,000.

In the southeast, the species is expected to occur mainly in higher (1,000-2,500 m altitude) and steeper mountains than further south, making human occupation more difficult, and this region may be more affected by climate change than threats caused directly by humans, such as fire and the introduction of alien species, which are the stronger and immediate threats in the southernmost localities (Boldrini et al. 2009, Funez 2016). In the south, anthropogenic fire is commonly observed, as it is used by cattle herders to control the encroachment into fields by shrubs (most commonly Baccharis uncinella, the host of A. neotropica) and other plants to preserve habitat for grazing and to renew the pastures.
The population is expected to have a 15-25% reduction in the next 25 years (3 generations), driven mainly by degradation of the habitat by fire and cattle grazing in the southern sites and impacts of climate change in the more northerly localities.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Antrodia neotopica is saprobic and lignicolous. So far it has been found growing exclusively on Baccharis uncinella, where it causes a brown rot. The host species occurs in shrublands marking the transition between montane fields and forests in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane ForestSubtropical/Tropical High Altitude ShrublandSubtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland

Threats

Overall, the species is threatened by climate change, especially in the higher altitude sites in the more northern extent of the species as plants from the lowlands will likely invade these special habitats and displace host plants of Antrodia neotropica. In the southern localities, direct anthropogenic activities are the most eminent threats for the species. Cattle herders, which use natural fields as grazing lands, set fire to dead grasses in order to have renewed pastures. These uncontrolled fires frequently burns large areas, entering the Vassourais, even into conservation units, such as the sites where the southern sites are located (Funez 2016).

Small-holder grazing, ranching or farmingIncrease in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

Even though many areas where the species is found are inside conservation units, anthropogenic influence can still be strongly observed. This is mainly due to the problematic question of land ownership involving conservation units in Brazil (Rocha 2010). The settlement of these questions, and the enforcing of conservation inside the areas are the main way in which the species can be conserved.

Site/area protectionAwareness & communicationsPolicies and regulationsNational level

Research needed

Research is needed to better understand and confirm the potential distribution of the species and its population dynamics/ecology/life cycle, including host specificity.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyPopulation trends

Use and Trade

No use or trade is known.


Bibliography

Behling, H., Pillar, V. D., Orlóci, L., and Bauermann, S. G. 2004. Late Quaternary Araucaria forest, grassland (Campos), fire and climate dynamics, studied by high-resolution pollen, charcoal and multivariate analysis of the Cambará do Sul core in southern Brazil. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 203(3-4), 277–297. doi:10.1016/s0031-0182(03)00687-4

Boldrini, I.I., Eggers, L., Mentz, L.A., Miotto, S.T.S., Matzenbacher, N.I., Longhi-Wagner, H.M., Trevisan, R., Schneider, A.A. and Setubal, R.B. 2009. In: Boldrini, I.I. (org.) Biodiversidade dos campos do planalto das araucárias. MMA, Brasília.

Colwell, R. K., Brehm, G., Cardelus, C. L., Gilman, A. C., and Longino, J. T. 2008. Global Warming, Elevational Range Shifts, and Lowland Biotic Attrition in the Wet Tropics. Science, 322(5899), 258–261. doi:10.1126/science.1162547

CRIA (Centro de Referência e Informação Ambiental). 2016. SpeciesLink. Disponível em:. Acesso em: 25 jul. 2016

Kaipper-Figueiró, G., Robledo, G.L., Reck, M.A., Góes-Neto, A. and Drechsler-Santos, E.R. 2016. Antrodia neotropica sp. nov. (Polyporales, Basidiomycota): a new South American species of Antrodia s.s. from Brazil based on morphological, molecular and ecological data. Nova Hedwigia. 103(1-2):125-143

Funez, L.A. 2016. Florística e Fitossociologia dos Campos do Quiriri, SC/PR, Brasil (MSc Thesis). Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina.


Rivers, M.C., Bachman, S.P., Meagher, T.R., Lughanda, E.N. and Brummitt, N.A. 2010. Subpopulations, locations and fragmentation: applying IUCN red list criteria to herbarium specimen data. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19(7), 2071–2085. doi:10.1007/s10531-010-9826-9


Rocha, L. G. M., Drummond, J. A., and Ganem, R. S. 2010. Parques nacionais Brasileiros: problemas fundiários e alternativas para a sua resolução. Revista de Sociologia e Política, 18(36), 205–226. doi:10.1590/s0104-44782010000200013
Vasconcelos, M. F. 2011. O que são campos rupestres e campos de altitude nos topos de montanha do leste do Brasil? Brazilian Journal of Botany, 34(2), 241–246. doi:10.1590/s0100-84042011000200012


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted