• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Immersaria fuliginosa Fryday

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Scientific name
Immersaria fuliginosa
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Proposed by
Alan Fryday
Alan Fryday
Tiana Scott
Comments etc.
Jessica Allen

Assessment Notes


AOO = 8 km2

EOO = 66 km2 (based on 33 km distance between the two sites x 2 km)

Taxonomic notes

Superficially similar to Poeltidea perusta, which is frequent in similar habitats on the Falkland Islands, but readily separated from that species by the powdery hypothallus and microscopically by the smaller, hyaline ascospores.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Known from only two collections made in 1968 from the summits of the two highest mountains on West Falkland (Falkland Islands).

Geographic range

Known only from two locations, the summits of Mts Adam and Maria, on West Falkland from collections made in 1968. (AOO = 8km2, The AOO was calculated using GeoCat and the species occurred in two 4 km2 grid cells) (EOO = 66 km2 (based on 33 km distance between the two sites x 2 km). This species was not found during recent surveys in 2015 (Fryday et al. 2019).

This species has only been reported from two collections that were made 33 km apart. As the biggest threat to this species is overgrazing by sheep, these two sites represent two separate locations.

Population and Trends

Last collected in 1968. Not seen during recent surveys (2015).

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

Siliceous rocks on the summits of Mts Adam and Maria on West Falkland



Global warming

Habitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions


Research needed

The lichen biota of the summits of the Falklands three mountain groups (Mts Usborne, Maria and Adam) have not been comprehensively inventoried. The most recent survey in 2015 only made a superficial inspection of this habitat and I. fuliginosa was not rediscovered.

Immersaria fuliginosa has not been discovered elsewhere among the c 5,000 collections from the Falkland Islands nor in the c. 10,000 lichen collections from southern South America held in the herbarium of Michigan State University herbarium (MSC) so is evidently extremely rare. It is probably confined to the rocky fellfields on the summits of the highest mountains of the archipelago.

Use and Trade



Fryday, A. M. & Hertel, H. (2014) A contribution to the family Lecideaceae s. lat. (Lecanoromycetidae inc. sed., lichenized Ascomycota) in the southern subpolar region; including eight new species and some revised generic circumscriptions. Lichenologist 46: 389–412.
Fryday, A.M., Orange, A., Ahti, T., Øvstedal, D.O. & Crabtree, D.E. (2019) Checklist of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi reported from the Falkland Islands. Glalia 8(1): 1–100.

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted