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Immersaria fuliginosa Fryday

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Scientific name
Immersaria fuliginosa
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Assessment date
IUCN Red List Category
IUCN Red List Criteria
Fryday, A.
Lendemer, J.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/176075840/176998727


Immersaria fuliginosa is only known from two locations and its total Area of Occupancy is 8 km2. Livestock grazing, fires, and/or climatic changes could quickly lead to the decline and extirpation of this species. Therefore, it is listed as Vulnerable under criterion D2.

Geographic range

Immersaria fuliginosa is known only from two locations, the summits of Mt. Adam and Mt. Maria on West Falkland, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), from collections made in 1968. This species was not found during recent surveys in 2015 of the Falkland Islands (Malvinas), though the visits to the sites were brief and the species may still be extant at both sites (Fryday et al. 2019). Careful examination of ~10,000 collections from southern South America held in the herbarium at Michigan State University did not result in the discovery of any individuals of this species occurring on mainland South America (Fryday and Prather 2001). This thorough investigation supports the conclusion that I. fuliginosa is endemic to the Falkland Islands (Malvinas).

Population and Trends

There are two reported subpopulations from collections made in 1968. No other subpopulations have been reported, and recent surveys did not relocate the species (Fryday et al. 2019). The summits of Mt. Maria and Mt. Adam were both visited in 2015, but are remote and difficult to access, and there was limited time available on site (c. 30 mins at each site). The total number of mature individuals is unknown, and the previously documented subpopulations may have been extirpated, although given the limited amount of surveying possible they are both considered extant for this assessment. The population trend is currently unknown.

Population Trend: unknown

Habitat and Ecology

Immersaria fuliginosa occurs only on siliceous rocks on the summits of Mts Adam and Maria on West Falkland, Falkland Islands (Malvinas).


Trampling by sheep and cows is a threat to rock-dwelling species and, as the area where it occurs is grazed, may pose a threat to Immersaria fuliginosa (Stenroos and Ahti 1992). Taxa found in the surrounding plant communities are threatened by overgrazing and fires initiated by farmers or lightning strikes. An ongoing decrease in summer rainfall and an increase in sunlight as a result of climate change and ozone depletion may negatively impact lichen species throughout the islands (McAdam 2013).

Conservation Actions

This species currently does not have a formal protected status. The two most important conservation actions needed to preserve this species are: 1) protection of the land on which it occurs, and 2) education of local land owners/citizens about the presence of this species in their area. Additionally, further research is needed to ascertain the current status and distribution of this species.

Source and Citation

Fryday, A. 2020. Immersaria fuliginosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T176075840A176998727. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T176075840A176998727.en .Accessed on 31 January 2022

Country occurrence