Do make a summary of it being a saprotrophic endemic cupfungus confined to Western Australia…Something about its known habitat and the trends for the habitat´squantity and quality. How well-known and much searched for the species is.
The presently sole species of the recently described (2018) genus Antrelloides, Antrelloides atroceracea is an unusual member of the Pezizales, its ascoma having similarities with both the apothecial and the uncommon exothecial forms. Phylogenetic analysis of Antrelloides atroceracea shows that it is most closely related to Lepidotia hispida (Quél.) Boud. and Peziza natrophila A.Z.M. Khan but the micro-, macro- and ecological characters of these species are very different.
Antrelloides atroceracea is distinctive but rarely recorded fungus that grows in a rather specific habitat, and is very rarely recorded.
Antrelloides atroceracea is endemic to Australia, where it has been found at a number of sites at the western end of Kangaroo Island, S35° 56′ 5″ to 26″; E136° 43′ 41″ to E136° 44′ 57.5″ at an altitude between 60 and 65 m. It has not been found at the eastern end, in spite of surveys carried out regularly since 2002. It has also been found in Western Australia, at Bow Bridge, between Denmark and Walpole at S34° 58′; E116° 57′. 4.
In Flinders Chase National Park in South Australia, it has been found at two sites, Platypus Waterholes, and near an airstrip on Shackle Road. The soil of both areas was sandy clay with lateritic nodules. The distance between the two sites is approximately 1.8 km
All observations were made in June or July in each of the years surveyed between 2007 and 2018. It was observed in most years between 2007 and 2018 (although not in 2009, 2012 and 2017). Ascomata were scattered. At some sites only one or ascomata were found, at others they were sparsely scattered over an area of approximately 10 m2.
From these data it is not possible to predict trends.
Population Trend: Uncertain
In South Australia Antrelloides atroceracea is found on the soil surface in slight depressions on sides of paths in lateritic sandy soils. Vegetation is heath with Banksia marginata Cav., Leptospermum continentale Joy Thomps., Melaleuca gibbosa Labill., Isopogon ceratophyllus R.Br., Petrophile multisecta F.Muell., Lepidosperma semiteres F.Muell.ex Boeck. and Hakea mitchellii Meisn. with a few scattered Eucalyptus. In Western Australia it occurs in grey sand on tracks in vegetation consisting of Eucalyptus marginata Sm. (jarrah), Andersonia caerulea R. Br., Astartea fascicularis (Labill.) DC., Melaleuca sp., Taxandria parviceps (Schauer) J.R.Wheeler & N.G.Marchant.
The collection in Western Australia was made North of Bow Bridge, Willmott Forest Block on Roe Road. In grey sand on track. S34° 58′; E116° 57′. 4 June 2008. Eucalyptus marginata Sm. (jarrah), Andersonia caerulea R. Br., Astartea fascicularis (Labill.) DC., Melaleuca sp., Taxandria parviceps (Schauer) J.R.Wheeler & N.G.Marchant. Soils here are lateritic pozols and have similarities to those of kangaroo Island, including having the tendency to become waterlogged (Stoneman 1990, 4).
The form of the fruit body and the habitat of Antrelloides atroceracea are interesting. Over a limited area fruit bodies are not uncommon. They are almost always on the edges of slightly raised, bare tracks and are subject to inundation, with standing water at least up to the margins of the fruit bodies. One population of immature fruit bodies was found on sticky, sandy clay soil in a slight depression where it was obvious that the water level had reached the margins of the discs. The substantial ribbed base anchors the fruit body in the soil, preventing it from being washed away.
The trophic mode of Antrelloides atroceracea is unknown. It is possible it is mycorrhizal. At the sites in both South Australia and Western Australia ascomata of Antrelloides atroceracea are near species of Eucalyptus.
Lateritic soils occur in a number of areas throughout Australia. However, the association between soil, possible mycorrhizal plant and fungus is unknown.
Antrelloides atroceracea occurs in a National Park and theoretically should be protected. However, it has a very specific habitat: on the sides of tracks and in depressions. This suggests that the form of the apothecia require these conditions. The base or pseudostipe is well anchored in the soil which may facilitate its not being washed away and may also facilitate spore dispersal. If this habitat were to dry up due to climate change then the species may be compromised.
Conservation of present habitats of Antrelloides atroceracea.
Prevention of clearance of these habitats for track-widening.
Further surveys in habitats where lateritic soils occur.
Research into relationships between Antrelloides atroceracea and possible mycorrhizal partners to determine trophic mode.
Investigation of mechanisms of spore release and germination in various soils.
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