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Antrelloides atroceracea P.S. Catches. & D.E.A. Catches.

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Scientific name
Antrelloides atroceracea
Author
P.S. Catches. & D.E.A. Catches.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Ascomycota
Class
Pezizomycetes
Order
Pezizales
Family
Pezizaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2019-07-24
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
D1
Assessors
Catcheside, P. & May, T.
Reviewers
Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/154926290/154926297

Justification

The three known sites are in very restricted habitats: sandy lateritic soils in areas that are periodically inundated. It is hypothesized that spore dispersal is dependent upon flooding, potentially explaining why the species has not been reported from sites that are not periodically inundated. Because of the restricted habitat, it is suspected that the number of unrecorded sites is low. 

This assessment is based on a likelihood of up to 15 total sites, with a total suspected number of 60-600 mature individuals of with the highest likelihood being around 400, resulting in an assessment of Vulnerable D1.

Taxonomic notes

This is the sole species of the recently described (2018) genus Antrelloides.

Geographic range

Antrelloides atroceracea is endemic to Australia, reported from two states: South Australia and Western Australia.  

In South Australia it has been found at two sites at the western end of Kangaroo Island: within Flinders Chase National Park, Platypus Waterholes, and near an airstrip on Shackle Road, S35° 56′5″ to 26″; E136° 43′41″ to E136° 44′57.5″ at an altitude between 60 and 65 m. The soil of both areas was sandy clay with lateritic nodules. The distance between the two sites is approximately 1.8 km. It has not been found at the eastern end of the island, in spite of surveys carried out regularly since 2002.

In Western Australia it has been recorded from Bow Bridge, between Denmark and Walpole at S34° 58′; E116° 57′.4.

Population and Trends

This species has only been reported from three sites: two on Kangaroo Island in South Australia and one in Western Australia.  

All observations at the South Australian sites were made in June or July in each of the years surveyed between 2007 and 2018. It was observed in most years between 2007 and 2019 (not in 2009, 2012, 2017). Ascomata were scattered. At some sites only one or few ascomata were found, at others they were sparsely scattered over an area of approximately 10 m2. It has only been found one time in Western Australia in June 2008. 

The known sites are in very restricted habitats, sandy lateritic soils in areas that are periodically inundated. It is hypothesized that spore dispersal is dependent upon flooding, potentially explaining why the species has not been reported from sites that are not periodically inundated. Because of the restricted habitat, it is suspected that the number of unrecorded sites is low. This assessment is based on a likelihood of up to 15 total sites, each with 4-40 mature individuals for a total suspected number of mature individuals of 60-600 with the highest likelihood of around 400.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

In South Australia Antrelloides atroceracea is found on the soil surface in slight depressions on sides of paths in lateritic sandy soils. Vegetation is heath with Banksia marginata Cav., Leptospermum continentale Joy Thomps., Melaleuca gibbosa Labill., Isopogon ceratophyllus R.Br., Petrophile multisecta F.Muell., Lepidosperma semiteres F.Muell.ex Boeck. and Hakea mitchellii Meisn. with a few scattered Eucalyptus. In Western Australia it occurs in grey sand on tracks in vegetation consisting of Eucalyptus marginata Sm. (jarrah), Andersonia caerulea R. Br., Astartea fascicularis (Labill.) DC., Melaleuca sp., Taxandria parviceps (Schauer) J.R.Wheeler & N.G.Marchant.  

The collection in Western Australia was made along a track north of Bow Bridge, Willmott Forest Block on Roe Road (S34° 58′; E116° 57′) on 4 June 2008. Soils there are lateritic podzols and have similarities to those of Kangaroo Island, including having the tendency to become waterlogged (Stoneman 1990).  

The convex shape of the ascocarps and the habitat of Antrelloides atroceracea are diagnostic. They are almost always found on the edges of slightly raised, bare tracks and are subject to inundation, with standing water at least up to the margins of the ascocarps. 

Lateritic soils occur in a number of areas throughout Australia. However, hypothesized requirement of inundation for spore dispersal severely limits potential sites where this species can occur.

Threats

Antrelloides atroceracea occurs in a National Park and theoretically should be protected. However, it has a very specific habitat: on the sides of tracks and in depressions. This suggests that the form of the apothecia require these conditions. The base or pseudostipe is well anchored in the soil which may facilitate its not being washed away and may also facilitate spore dispersal. If this habitat were to dry up due to climate change then the species may be compromised.

Conservation Actions

Conservation of the present habitats of Antrelloides atroceracea is recommended. Further surveys are needed in habitats where lateritic inundated soils occur, to investigate for additional occurrences of this species.

Research is required into relationships between Antrelloides atroceracea and its possible mycorrhizal partners to determine the trophic mode, as well as investigation of mechanisms of spore release and germination in various soils.

Use and Trade

The species is not utilized.

Source and Citation

Catcheside, P. & May, T. 2019. Antrelloides atroceracea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T154926290A154926297. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T154926290A154926297.en .Downloaded on 30 January 2021

Country occurrence