• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Bondarzewia retipora (Cooke) M.D. Barret

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Scientific name
Bondarzewia retipora
Author
(Cooke) M.D. Barret
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Russulales
Family
Bondarzewiaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU Vulnerable under B2a & b and D2
Proposed by
Patrick Leonard
Assessors
Patrick Leonard
Comments etc.
Matt Barrett, Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Justification

Bondarzewia retipora is a wood inhabiting fungus that is likely to be a long lived with a generation length approximately 50 years. There are four severely fragmented populations: North Queensland, South- eastern Queensland and New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. No collections have been made in Victoria since 1933 or in WA since 1972 so we may reasonably deduce that we have only two subpopulations remaining, both with observations being made within the last decade.
Using Dahlberg & Mueller’s multiplier for wood inhabiting fungi and the observations made in the last 50 years we would estimate the population of mature individuals to be < 10 in North Queensland and < 20 in SEQ and NSW.
Allowing for as yet undiscovered localities is difficult, much of Queensland is unsuitable habitat for this species. There are probably some individuals in as yet un-surveyed sites, so we would tentatively estimate there to be 4 sites in North Queensland and 6 - 8 in SEQ and NSW.
The current distribution of this taxon is concentrated in National Parks and might thus be expected to be reasonably safe. However, climate change has already shown that there is an increased risk of fire and storm events, even in protected areas and the resilience of this species and its host to these events is not known.
On this basis we have concluded that Bondarzewia retipora should be classed as ‘vulnerable’.
Missing documentation of ecology, status, trends and preliminary assessment.


Taxonomic notes

Basidiocarps annual, pileate, broadly attached to the substrate, imbricate, hard, corky upon drying; pileus fan-shaped, projecting up to 60 mm, 110 mm wide and 7 mm thick at base; margin dull; pilea surface buff yellow, brownish orange to dark brown when dry, azonate, glabrous; margin buff yellow when dry.
Pores: surface cream to buff when dry; pores irregular to angular, 1–3/mm, mostly 2/mm; dissepiments thin, entire to slightly lacerate; context cream to pale buff and hard, corky when dry, up to 6 mm thick; tubes concolorous with the pore surface, up to 1 mm long.
Odor and flavor: unknown.
Hyphal system: dimitic; generative hyphae simple septate; skeletal hyphae IKI−, CB−; tissues unchanged in KOH. Contextual generative hyphae common, hyaline, thick-walled, simple septate, occasionally branched, 5–8 mm diam; contextual skeletal hyphae dominant, hyaline, thick-walled with a narrow to wide lumen, rarely branched, flexuous, interwoven, 3–5 mm diam. Trama generative hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, simple septate and frequently branched, 2–3 mm diam; trama skeletal hyphae dominant, hyaline, thick-walled with a narrow to wide lumen, rarely branched, flexuous, interwoven, 3–4 mm diam, Cystidia and cystidioles: absent.
Basidia: clavate, with a simple basal septum and four sterigmata, 24–40 6 7.5–12 mm; basidioles similar in shape to basidia but distinctly shorter.
Spores: subglobose to broadly ellipsoidal, hyaline, thick-walled, with obvious ridges, strongly IKI+, CB+, (6.8–)7–8.6 (6–) × 6.5–7.5 mm, L 5 7.4 mm, W 5 6.9 mm, Q 5 1.07 (n 5 30/1). Ridges of spores sharp, up to 1 mm.
Specimens examined: AUSTRALIA, QUEENSLAND STATE:
Lamington National Park, Binna Burra, Western Loop, on unknown host, 12 Mar 2001, Young LNP 68 (BRI 808505);  13 Mar 2001, Young LNP 75 (BRI 808504).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This fungus was recorded under the north American name of Bodarzewia berkeleyi in Australia until 2006. With the advent of genetic analysis, Barrett demonstrated that the Australian collections were distinct and in 2006 published the species as Bondarzewia retipora with a detailed diagnosis. There are altogether some 10 records of this fungus, but only three in the last 40 years. The fungus may be deemed extinct in Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria. The only recent records are in Queensland.


Geographic range


Population and Trends

The collection of data on the distribution and population of fungi in Queensland was almost wholly dependent on the work of the staff at the Queensland herbarium until 1995. The herbarium currently holds 5200 fungal specimens accumulated over 150 years. Recording has undergone considerable change in the past 25 years. The foundation of Fungimap in 1995 engaged citizen scientists in recording fungi and those records are now part of the ALA database. Over 100000 records have been collected by Fungimap some of which were for Queensland. In 2007 the Queensland Mycological Society was founded and began a program of organised forays mainly focussed on South East Queensland. About 300 days of effort are expended annually by members and some 4000 records have been made. The rate of fungal specimens added to the Herbarium has increased from 25 per annum over the previous century to 125 per annum in the last decade. More recently the creation of a South East Queensland Facebook group has allowed other naturalists to contribute information on the sighting of fungi over a wider area of the state. All this effort means that fungal records are more extensive in the last decade than in previous periods. This makes it difficult to establish trends, but also means that there is now a greater degree of accuracy about the size and distribution of fungal populations.
The number of records is so small that little can be deduced from them by way of trends. Of the known collections, eight were made more than 25 years ago and only three in more recent times and at about 10 year intervals.

Population Trend: Uncertain


Habitat and Ecology

Bondarzewia retipora is a wood inhabiting fungus that is likely to be a long lived with a generation length approximately 50 years. There are four severely fragmented populations: North Queensland, South- eastern Queensland and New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. No collections have been made in Victoria since 1933 or in WA since 1972 so we may reasonably deduce that we have only two subpopulations remaining, both with observations being made within the last decade.


Threats

The locations at which this fungus occurs are well protected, in National Parks or Wildlife Reserves. The subtropical rainforest habitat in which the fungus is found has undergone substantial reduction since European settlement in the mid nineteenth century. In 2003 Coger et al estimated that only 1/3 of these forest remained on the ranges of South East Queensland. Neldner et al (2017) demonstrated that the rate of loss has continued in the next decade and losses are still occurring. The remaining forests have become fragmented by land clearing for agriculture and substantial development pressure for house building and the creation of lifestyle properties in South-eastern Queensland and Northern New South Wales has seen further forest losses.

Feral animals have a large effect on many Australian habitats with cattle, horses,  camels, deer, pigs, dogs, cats rabbits and toads amongst the many introduced animals that inhabit our forests. For fungi it is thought that wild pigs and cattle may have the most significant effects. Pigs through digging large areas of soil and consumption of fruit bodies and cattle through trampling and increasing nitrogen levels.
Climate change is also beginning to have an effect with increasing temperatures, more intense droughts and more intense rain events all causing discernable damage. Recent experience in Queensland has also suggested that subtropical rainforest is not immune to fire events.


Conservation Actions

This fungus is considered to be of least concern in Queensland under current legislation. Recognition of the species in the management plans for the three National Parks in which it has been found might secure some additional safeguards.


Research needed

The host association and biology of this fungus is not well understood


Use and Trade


Bibliography

Accad, A., Neldner, V.J., Kelley, J.A.R., Li, J. and Richter, D. (2019). Remnant Regional Ecosystem Vegetation in Queensland, Analysis 1997-2017. Queensland Department of Environment and Science: Brisbane.
Atlas of living Australia (2019). https://biocache.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?
Chen, JJ; Cui, BK; He, SH; Cooper, JA; Barrett, MA; Chen, JL; Dai, YC. 2016. Molecular phylogeny and global diversity of the remarkable genus Bondarzewia (Basidiomycota, Russulales). Mycologia. 108(4):697-708.

Coger, H., Ford, H, Johnson, C.’ Holman, J. & Butler D. (2003). Impacts of Land Clearing on Wildlife in Queensland. World Wildlife Fund.
Dahlberg A. and Mueller G.M. (2011) Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4: 147-162.
Geospatial Conservation Assessment Tool: geocat.kew.org
Global Biodiversity Information Facility: gbif.org
Neldner, V.J.,  M.J. Laidlaw, K.R. McDonald, M.T. Mathieson, R.I. Melzer, R. Seaton, W.J. F. McDonald, R. Hobson, and C.J. Limpus (2017). Scientific review of the impacts of land clearing on threatened species in Queensland. Queensland Government, Brisbane.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted