• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
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Tuber aztecorum G. Guevara, Bonito & M.E. Sm.

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Scientific name
Tuber aztecorum
Author
G. Guevara, Bonito & M.E. Sm.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Ascomycota
Class
Pezizomycetes
Order
Pezizales
Family
Tuberaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN A3c; B1ab(i)
Proposed by
Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero
Assessors
Roberto Garibay Orijel, Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero
Editors
Roberto Garibay Orijel
Contributors
Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

This fungus is strongly associated with an endemic conifer on central Mexico. Its host, Abies religiosa, populations will decline 87% in the next 50 years due to global warming. In consequence the fungus is severely endangered.

Justification

Tuber aztecorum should be listed as Endangered (EN) based on the criteria A3c because its main habitat, the high mountain Abies religiosa forest, is expected to decline 87% within the next fifty years due to global warming. Additionally, it also fit the B1ab(i) criteria as the species has only three know fragmented subpopulations within an EOO of 11,000 km2 that will rapidly decline.


Taxonomic notes

Tuber aztecorum is an ectomycorrhizal truffle only associated with Abies religiosa that can be recognized by its reddish brick color peridium,  aciculiform cystidia with erected irregular cell wall hyphae on the peridium.  Tuber aztecorum is the sister species of T. castilloi but the former differs by having bigger spores of 27-63 x 20-40 µ and is associated mainly with Quercus spp.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Due to the close ectomycorrhizal association of Tuber aztecorum with Abies religiosa this truffle is severely endangered by the reduction of its host populations because of global warming.
Tuber aztecorum should be listed as Endangered (EN) based on the criteria A3c because its main habitat, the high mountain Abies religiosa forest, is expected to decline 87% within the next fifty years due to global warming. Additionally, it also fit the B1ab(i) criteria as the species has only three know fragmented subpopulations within an EOO of 11,000 km2 that will rapidly decline.


Geographic range

Tuber aztecorum has only one published subpopulation in “Nevado de Toluca” Natural Area in Estado de Mexico (Guevara et all 2018). Additionally we have collect it from El Zarco Estado de México and the Mexican Soil Fungi data base indicates that the only other site with T. aztecorum DNA in soil is the Mariposa Monarca Preserve in Michoacan. The three sites are Abies religiosa forests in the central part of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. The area encompassing these sites has an EOO of 11,000 km2.


Population and Trends

GBIF (2019) do not register any occurrences. This truffle is known from only from three localities. Data from two sites come from fruit bodies and one site from soil DNA. Within the Abies religiosa forests in the center of Mexico may be a ten fold (30) estimated number of subpopulations. In addition, efforts to find this hypogeous species have been unsuccessfully in the last few years. The few existing records do not seem to be a result of under-sampling. As it is strongly associated with Abies religiosa and this tree is severely endangered by climate change, T. aztecorum population will suffer a continuous decline in the near future.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Ascomata are hypogeous, gregarious, associated with Abies religiosa forests producing rare fruit-bodies. Environmental sequences demonstrate that this species has a strong ectomycorrhizal association with Abies religiosa.

Temperate Forest

Threats

The only three known subpopulations of Tuber aztecorum are associated with Abies religiosa forests.  Abies religiosa forests are subjected to land cover-change and illegal timber extraction. In addition, this vegetation is severely threatened by global warming; it has been estimated that by 2060, A. religiosa populations will decline by 87%  (Miranda-Aragón et al., 2012; Sáenz-Romero et al., 2016; Sáenz-Romero, Rehfeldt, Duval, & Lindig-Cisneros, 2012).
The localities in the Nevado de Toluca and el Zarco are natural preserves, however they are in the vicinities of Mexico and Toluca cities and subjected to urbanization and pollution.

Housing & urban areasAcid rainHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

Tuber aztecorum is present in the Protected Area Flora and Fauna of Nevado de Toluca intimately associated with A. religiosa. A priority action for Abies religosa would be to protected its habitat and other endangered species of fungi and insect such as monarch butterfly. Tuber aztecorum is not enlisted in either Red nor National lists up to date.

Site/area protection

Research needed

More sampling to other sites of A. religiosa forest.

Population size, distribution & trendsPopulation trends

Use and Trade

There are not reports about edibility or use of this species, however, it is suspected to be edible.


Bibliography

GBIF Secretariat. (2019). Tuber aztecorum. Retrieved May 23, 2019, from https://www.gbif.org/species/5451995
Guevara-Guerrero G, Bonito G, Smith ME, Healy R, Grupe II AC, Cázares E, Castellano MA, Trappe JM (2018) Tuber aztecorum sp. nov., a truffle species from Mexico belonging to the Maculatum clade (Tuberaceae, Pezizales). MycoKeys 30: 61–72. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.30.22887
Miranda-Aragón, L., Treviño-Garza, E. J., Jiménez-Pérez, J., Aguirre-Calderón, O. A., González-Tagle, M. A., Pompa-García, M., & Aguirre-Salado, C. A. (2012). Modeling susceptibility to deforestation of remaining ecosystems in North Central Mexico with logistic regression. Journal of Forestry Research, 23(3), 345–354.http://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-012-0230-z
Sáenz-Romero, C., Lindig-Cisneros, R. A., Joyce, D. G., Beaulieu, J., St. Clair, J. B., & Jaquish, B. C. (2016). Assisted migration of forest populations for adapting trees to climate change. Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales Y Del Ambiente, 22(3), 303–323.http://doi.org/10.5154/r.rchscfa.2014.10.052
Sáenz-Romero, C., Rehfeldt, G. E., Duval, P., & Lindig-Cisneros, R. A. (2012). Abies religiosa habitat prediction in climatic change scenarios and implications for monarch butterfly conservation in Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management, 275(0), 98–106.http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.03.004


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted