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Entoloma ravinense P.S. Catches., Vonow & D.E.A. Catches.

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Scientific name
Entoloma ravinense
Author
P.S. Catches., Vonow & D.E.A. Catches.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Entolomataceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2019-07-24
IUCN Red List Category
EN
IUCN Red List Criteria
D
Assessors
Catcheside, P. & May, T.
Reviewers
Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/154843479/154843580

Justification

Entoloma ravinense has only been found at two sites within 18 km of each other and always on large sheets of shed bark of Eucalyptus cladocalyx recovering from bushfire.

The number of sporocarps recorded from one site ranged from 0-12 over the 10 year period, with no relationship to time since fire. Sporocarps have only been recorded one time from the second site, 10 years post fire. 

Given the available data, it estimated that there are up to 20 additional sites, and a total of 88-132 mature individuals, all restricted to the western end of Kangaroo Island. There is no indication that the population is in decline. The species is assessed as Endangered D.

Taxonomic notes

Entoloma ravinense was first collected in 2010, and formally described in 2016.

Geographic range

Entoloma ravinense has been found in a very narrow geographic range: two sites at the western end of Kangaroo Island, South Australia, Australia at a distance apart of approximately 18 km: Ravine des Casoars Wilderness Protection Area (S35° 48′ 5″ to 8.7″; E136° 36′ 43″ to 50″ at an altitude of approximately 45 m.), in a steep sided valley vegetated by Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. and E. diversifolia Bonpl. sclerophyll fores and Rocky River Walking Trail in Flinders Chase National Park (S35° 57′ 4″; E136° 36′ 34″ at an altitude of approximately 10 m.). 

It is restricted to fallen large sheets of  bark of Eucalyptus cladocalyx following fire.

Populations of Eucalyptus cladocalyx are endemic to South Australia where they are restricted to Kangaroo Island, the Flinders Ranges, in Mount Remarkable National Park, and on the lower and middle Eyre Peninsula. Assuming bark of  E. cladocalyx is the exclusive substratum for E. ravinense, then the full range of the host tree has been surveyed by Pam and David Catcheside on a number of occasions, without finding additional material of Entoloma ravinense.

Population and Trends

Entoloma ravinense only has been found at two sites within 18 km of each other and always on large sheets of shed bark of Eucalyptus cladocalyx recovering from bushfire. Eucalyptus baxteri is another bark-shedding eucalypt which occurs in the area but, in spite of careful looking, E. ravinense has not been found on its bark. The fungus was not found prior to the bushfires of 2007, in spite of careful fungal surveys starting in 2002.

The number of sporocarps recorded from one site ranged from 0-12 over the 10 year period, with no relationship to time since fire. Sporocarps have only been recorded one time from the second site, 10 years post fire.  

Pleurotoid Entolomas like E ravinense are often overlooked, in part due to their often cryptic habitats and their usually small size.

Given available data, it estimated that there are up to 20 additional sites each with 4-6 mature individuals for a total of 88-132 mature individuals, all restricted to the western end of Kangaroo Island. There is no indication that the population is in decline.

Population Trend: stable


Habitat and Ecology

Entoloma ravinense is a saprotrophic fungus, seemingly specific to the bark of Eucalyptus cladocalyx and to the underside of shed bark. The species appears to be restricted to two sites on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Fruit-bodies and an extensive mycelium form on the underside of large, often rotting, sheets of bark of Eucalyptus cladocalyx shed after fire. Additional trees in the area include E. baxteri (Benth.) Maiden & Blakely ex J.M.Black and an understorey of Acacia paradoxa DC and Pultenaea daphnoides Wendl..   

The two sites have been regularly surveyed for fungi since 2002, but the first record of this species was in 2010 after the severe bushfires of December 2007 as the understorey was densely regenerating.

Threats

Eucalyptus cladocalyx is endemic to South Australia and is found naturally in three distinct populations, in the Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula and on Kangaroo Island. It has become naturalised in Western Australia, in southern Victoria, and beyond its native range in some parts of south-eastern South Australia. It has also become naturalised in Africa, California, Hawaii, Arizona, Israel, Chile, Greece, Portugal and Spain. Therefore there seems to be no threat to the ‘host’ tree of Entoloma ravinense if indeed it should prove that the fungus is specific to this host. However, because the fungus has been found so rarely, it would seem that conditions for growth may be more complex.

Lack of suitable fire regime is a possible threat to this species. If it should be proven that Entoloma ravinense requires a burnt substrate then a suitable fire regime would seem necessary. 

Clearance for track-widening to promote easier access for ecotourism is another potential threat.

Conservation Actions

Conservation of present habitats of Eucalyptus cladocalyx where Entoloma ravinense has been found is the major action required to protect this species, including preventing clearance of these habitats for track-widening, and the development of suitable fire regimes.

Additional research is required, including further observations throughout the fungal season. On Kangaroo Island this is usually from May to September. (David and Pam Catcheside have been collecting on the island since 2002 but have been unable to go to the island for more than one week each year at the end of June.) It may be possible to show Friends’ groups resident on the island what the fungus looks like and where to find it and for them to document locality, number of fruit bodies and so on. The observations should be structured to include information allowing elucidation of the suitability of the substrate in relation to time since fire, e.g. establishing whether is there a maximum time since fire when the substrate no longer supports the fungus.

Laboratory experiments may be possible as supporting research e.g. mycelial growth on bark from different species of Stringybark Eucalypt; mycelial growth on unburnt to well-burnt Eucalyptus cladocalyx bark and on un-rotted to well-rotted bark.

Use and Trade

The species is not utilized.

Source and Citation

Catcheside, P. & May, T. 2019. Entoloma ravinense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T154843479A154843580. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T154843479A154843580.en .Downloaded on 31 January 2021

Country occurrence