- Scientific name
- Cortinarius haasii
- (M.M. Moser) M.M. Moser
- Common names
- Violettstielieger Amethyst-Klumpfuß
- IUCN Specialist Group
- Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
- Assessment status
- Assessment date
- IUCN Red List Category
- IUCN Red List Criteria
- Brandrud, T.-E.
- Svetasheva, T., Kałucka, I.L. & Iršėnaitė, R.
is associated mainly with Abies
spp. (Abies alba
, A. nordmanniana
), sometimes also with Pinus sylvestris
. Its major habitat is montane, calcareous Abies
- or Abies-Picea-Fagus
forests of C and S Europe, a forest type with many habitat-specific taxa of Cortinarius
, subgenus Phlegmacium
-rich, calcareous Abies
or mixed Abies-Picea-Fagus
forests often occupies small and fragmented areas, and the habitat is vulnerable of habitat loss due to urbanization, lime quarries, shift in tree species (uniform Picea
plantations) etc, and to decreased ecological conditions due to modern forestry (with clear-cuts).
The species is known from 50 localities in Europe/globally. The total population is estimated to approx. 150(-200) localities, which is equivalent to approx. 3,000(-4,000) mature individuals. According to the C criterion (C2 a(i)), the species is assessed as VU, based on a continuous decline, population size <10,000 individuals and very small/isolated subpopulations.
According to present data, Cortinarius haasii
is mainly distributed in the montane regions with (mixed) Abies alba
forests of the Jura and Prealps. It is known also from the Pyrenees and W Carpathians, and occurs SE to the Abies nordmanniana
forests of W Caucasus. Probably the species has a wide distribution within the natural Abies alba
range of the Carpathians, the Italian Apennines and the Balkan-Greek mountains (but the calcareous fir forests are little investigated in most of these regions). Outside the natural Abies
forest range, the species is recorded under Pinus sylvestris
in E Spain and SE Sweden (Gotland). It is probable that the species occurs in Poland and Czechia, although there are no records until now. Also possible that it might occur in the Balkans.
The element of habitat-specific taxa of calcareous Abies
forests are never found outside Europe, e.g. never found within the Abies sibirica
range of Asian Siberia, and never recorded in N America. In other words, this element is according to present knowledge assumed to be strictly European (at least when the Abies nordmanniana
range of N Turkey is included).
Population and Trends
Cortinarius haasii is known from 50 sites/localities in Europe/globally; approx. 10 sites from N Europe/SE Sweden, 3 from NE Spain, 1 from the Czechia, 1 from W Caucasus, and the rest from the Jura-Prealps-Black Forest region. The total population is estimated to approx. 150(-200) sites/localities, which is equivalent to approx. 3,000(-4,000) individuals, according to IUCN standards (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011).
Population Trend: decreasing
Habitat and Ecology
is associated mainly with montane calcareous, old-growth, herb-rich-mossy Abies
forests, where it forms mycorrhiza with Abies alba
, possibly also with Picea abies
in areas with mixed Abies-Picea
forests; in Caucasus with Abies nordmanniana
. Southwest and north of the natural Abies alba
forest range, the species occur in calcareous, herb-rich pine forests, where it forms mycorrhiza with Pinus sylvestris
(NE Spain, SE Sweden). The species regularly occurs together with other species of the calcareous Abies
forest element, such as C. atrovirens
and C. citrinoolivaceus
. The decline of the calcareous Abies
forests (or mixed Abies-Picea
forests) in the evaluation period (last 50 years or three generation) is estimated to be in the magnitude of 15-20% (Janssen et al.
2017, Diaci 2011).
and its habitats (calcareous old-growth Abies
) forests, calcareous pine forests) have been declining e.g. due to area loss (urbanization, including tourist resorts, expansion of limestone quarries, shift from Abies
stands to Picea
plantations) as well as decreased habitat quality/ecological conditions due to modern forestry with clear-cuttings. Forest statistics from Austria indicates that forestry activity has been doubled the last 40 years, and according to a habitat-redlist in Austria, the Abies-Picea
forests are endangered in many regions of Austria (Essl and Egger 2010, Diaci 2011).
To prevent decline and further fragmentation of calcareous Abies
) forests and calcareous Pinus
forests with good habitat quality, it is important to set aside reserves on calcareous hotspots, housing many rare/redlisted, habitat-specific species such as C. atrovirens
, C. citrinoolivaceus
and C. haasii
. It is furthermore important to establish also sites with a less strict conservation regime, such as woodland key biotopes, where some non-destructive human activities are accepted (such as non-intensive forestry, with closed cutting).
More mapping/surveying and monitoring of C. haasii
is needed. More data on occurrences in the little studied calcareous Abies alba
forests of the eastern Carpathians and the montane regions of Balkan is especially needed. Finally, more documentation on the degree of decline of the habitats themselves is needed.
Use and Trade
The species is not used.
Source and Citation
Brandrud, T.-E. 2019. Cortinarius haasii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T147837035A147842771. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T147837035A147842771.en
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