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Lactarius haugiae Bandala, Montoya & Ramos

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Scientific name
Lactarius haugiae
Author
Bandala, Montoya & Ramos
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Russulales
Family
Russulaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2018-11-01
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
C2a(i)
Assessors
Garcia-Sandoval, R.
Reviewers
Dahlberg, A.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/138795065/138891820

Justification

Lactarius haugiae is an ectomycorrhizal fungus with its known global distribution restricted to cloud forests in Southeast Mexico. The forests where L. haugiae develops are isolated, fragmented, and extremely influenced by human activities. All the surrounding areas of these forests have been changed entirely to urban territories and L. haugiae population is declining due to deforestation, pollution, and edge effects. Despite 50 years of extensive study there is only one known population. Lactarius haugiae is listed as Vulnerable (VU) under criterion C2a(i) as the number of estimated localities is not more than 50 and population estimate below 100 mature individuals in each subpopulation; with ongoing and projected habitat loss due to change in land use of 30% in the last 15 years and 30% in the next 15 years.

Taxonomic notes

Lactarius haugiae has a convex pileus with the centre depressed to infundibuliform when mature, viscid, zonate, with yellowish colours. The orange tinges are more evident at pileus centre, staining brown when handled. Lamellae adnate to subdecurrent, ventricose, yellowish-cream to yellow-orange coloured. The latex is white, not staining white paper and very hot. Lactarius haugiae is similar to several Lactarius species such as L. yazooensis, L. olympianus, L. psammicola f. glaber, L. subvillosus and L. acerrimus, but differs by pileus shape, surface, and colours, lamellae arrangement and latex appearance, colour, and taste (Bandala et al. 2016).

Geographic range

The records of L. haugiae are limited to the centre of Veracruz state in Southeast Mexico. Its known distribution is limited to the “Santuario Bosque de Niebla” and the forest area that surrounds the botanical garden of the “Instituto de Ecología A.C.” (Bandala et al. 2016) in Xalapa city. The forests surrounding Xalapa city have been intensively studied by different mycologist during the past 50 years at least, by Guzmán, Bandala, Montoya, etc from the “Instituto de Ecología A.C.” who have been describing new Lactarius species from these areas. Despite this, this speceis has been found only in two sites with 13 observations.

Population and Trends

The whole known population of L. haugiae is limited to the centre of Veracruz state exclusively in southeast Mexico. There is only one subpopulation divided in two forest fragments: “Santuario Bosque de Niebla”, a space under protection by the “Instituto de Ecología A.C.” where it has been collected 10 times; and the forest area that surrounds the botanical garden of the “Instituto de Ecología A.C.”, also in the Xalapa city, where it has been collected three more times (Bandala et al. 2016). Both localities represent a fragmented single subpopulation developing in small patches of vegetation immersed in Xalapa city, under extremely anthropogenic pressures due to the urban surrounding lands. The known distribution of the species is robust since we have tested the DNA barcode of the type specimen against a soil fungi database from Mexico (unpublished data). Thanks to this, we discarded the association of L. haugiae with other Fagaceae forests (Quercus spp) and also we confirmed that it does not have a wider distribution.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Lactarius haugiae an ectomycorrhizal fungus that has been collected in cloud forests with Quercus spp. and Carpinus caroliniana trees (Bandala et al. 2016). For other species of Lactarius from Veracruz like L. acatlanensis, the association has been demonstrated with species of Fagaceae like Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana (Montoya et al. 2017), which is distributed close to the sampling areas of L. haugiae. Testing against a soil fungi database from Mexico (unpublished data) we have discarded the distribution of L. haugiae in other Fagaceae forests of Mexico (Quercus spp). Veracruz, and in particular the area surrounding Xalapa city, has been under intense scrutiny by different researchers during the past 50 years at least; so L. haugiae has a very specific distribution associated to some mountain cloud forest ectomycorrhizal host, probably F. grandifolia var. mexicana.

Threats

The subtropical cloud forest, particularly those in Veracruz state are highly threatened due to changes in land uses to convert forests areas into urban territories (Williams-Linera et al. 2015). All the land that surrounds the “Santuario Bosque de Niebla” has been dramatically changed to cattle lands, increasing the isolation of different relicts of this vegetation type across Veracruz state. Also, the areas around the “Instituto de Ecologia A.C.” are urban territories where threats like edge effects and pollution via atmospheric deposits, affect L. haugiae and its hosts.

Conservation Actions

Currently the “Instituto de Ecología A.C.” protects the “Santuario Bosque de Niebla” where the only known subpopulation of L. haugiae is found. This site represents one of the last relicts of subtropical cloud forest around Xalapa, in Central Veracruz (Bandala et al. 2016).

Use and Trade

There are no reports about edibility or use of this species.

Source and Citation

Garcia-Sandoval, R. 2019. Lactarius haugiae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T138795065A138891820. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T138795065A138891820.en .Downloaded on 31 January 2021

Country occurrence