Pileus 4•5–5 cm broad, plano-convex, dry, finely subvelutinous, deep red to pale red, with some hintsof olive at margin from fading;
Tubes adnexed, bright yellow to yellow with a hint of pale greenish, unchanging;
Pores 1–2 per mm, yellow, unchanging.
Stipe 7•5 × 1•5 cm, barely subclavate, straight, dry, dark dull red, pale yellow near base, white at base, coarselyand shallowly lacerate-ridged with a dense red pruina overlaying the ridges, pseudoscabrous;
Flesh pale yellow above, white toward and at base, unchanging.
Basidiospores10•5–14•7 × 6•3–8•4 μm (n = 16; x = 12•95× 7•78 μm; Q = 1•66), ellipsoid to subamygdaliform, reticulate to alveolate-reticulate, honey brown in KOH.
Basidia 26–34 × 11–14 μmclavate, 4-sterigmate,hyaline.
Hymenophoral trama bilateral, of the Boletus subtype, fleetingly amyloid in Melzer’s, hyaline in KOH, with cells 4–9 μm broad.
Cheilocystidia 20–33 × 10–16 μm, broadly clavate tosphaeropedunculate, smooth, thin-walled.
Pileipellis a hymeniform epithelium, with cells 7–14 (–17) μm broad,
broadly clavate to napiform, sometimes isodiametric,hyaline in KOH, subtended with subpellis elements containing an amorphous, soluble, reddish brown,plasmatic pigment. Pileus trama interwoven, withhyphae 5–10 μm broad, thin-walled, hyaline in KOH, inamyloid.
Stipitipellis hyphae smooth and thin-walled, with caulocystidia14–30 × 10–20 μm, clavate to short clavate to subcylindrical or oblong and subrectangular.
Clamp connections absent.
Habitat growing in heathland with Melaleuca and Allocasuarina species.
Heimioporus australis is a distinctive species , easy to identify in the field. It is one of a very rich and diverse population of Boletes that inhabit the once extensive sand dunes of southeast Queensland. Many of the dune systems have been developed for housing, tourism and transport infrastructure and others have been planted with forests using exotic species. Although this development trend is slowing, this coastal dune systems will be vulnerable to other threats including sea level changes and storm surges resulting from climate change.
There have only ever been 4 functional individuals found on four separate sites. Although both Fraser Island and Cooloola have been intensively studied by bolete specialists, there are five other areas which are smaller in total extent but have not been as well surveyed. Using the Dahlberg & Mueller (2011) methodology we think that it would be reasonable to expect the population to be perhaps 5 times greater, that is 20 locations and 200 mature individuals.
The habitat in which this species is found has declined rapidly as it is much in demand for coastal development. The sites in which these collections have been made are under high recreational pressure, they have been damaged by fire and at two sites the water table suffers from increasing pollution, all of which pose a threat for this species.
It would be classified as “endangered “under criteria B2a because of the small range of the species and the decline of its habitat, and under criteria D1 because of the small population size.
Australia, limited to a small coastal area of South East Queensland. This is the world’s largest area of costal dune systems.
There is insufficient data to make an assessment of past population size or distribution.
Extent of habitat has decreased significantly. In 2013, less about 30% of the pre-settlement habitat remained amounting to less than 10.000 hectares (Regional Ecosystem Assessment).
Quality of habitat has decreased over the past 10 years; the sites in which the collections have been made are under high recreational pressure and increased urbanisation. The limited evidence available suggests that this family of fungi (Boletaceae) are not fire tolerant. The locations near residential areas the water table suffers from increasing pollution and fertiliser use. Increased nutrients appear to inhibit the growth of mycorrhizal fungi.
QLD Cols Au Cols 50+ Yr 25-50 Yr 0-24 Yr Nom
4 4 1 0 3 4
QLD Cols = Collections /records made in Queensland
Au Cols = Collections /records made in Australia
50+, 25-50 and 0-24 = the number of collection/records made in each period.
Nom = Number of localities sensu IUCN.
Found in wet and dry coastal heathlands and dune systems. Thought to be mycorrhizal with Allocasuarina, Melaleuca and/or Eucalyptus.
Land Clearing has removed the host species and therefore the fungus. Extent of habitat has decreased significantly. In 2013, less about 30% of the pre-settlement habitat remained amounting to less than 10.000 hectares (Regional Ecosystem Assessment).
The sites in which the collections have been made are under high recreational pressure from increased urbanisation. The limited evidence available suggests that this family of fungi (Boletaceae) are not fire tolerant (Robinson and Tunsell 2007). In the locations near residential areas the water table suffers from increasing pollution and fertiliser use on the golf course (anecdotal). Increased nutrients appear to inhibit the growth of mycorrhizal fungi.
The National Parks appear to be protected from most of the current and past threats but as fungi are not recognised in conservation management plans, any future changes may not favour the conservation of the species.
Future threats also include the effects of climate change. Increasing sea level and more frequent and higher intensity of storms to which this coastal habitat is particularly vulnerable. Harsher fire weather and drought are also predicted and may pose additional threats (http://www.climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au).
This taxon occurs in a Bushland reserve and two National Parks, all of which have management plans (DNPSR). Writing the species in to the management plans would lead to proper consideration of its conservation. Action may be need to abate pollution at the Mt. Coolum N.P. as the site for this fungus is on the National Park Boundary that abuts the golf course which receives heavy doses of fertilizers and some fungicides. The Caloundra site is a reserve within an urban area and is well used as an urban park, management measures to protect the site of this fungus from recreational pressure are required.
The life cycle and habitat requirements of this species and of other mycorrhizal boletes are poorly understood. Research is needed to elucidate this and to formulate effective management plans. The establishment of new colonies of Boletes seems to pose special problems which has resulted in several species being red listed in European countries.
Brundrett, M. C. (2009) Mycorrhizal associations and other means of nutrition of vascular plants: understanding the global diversity of host plants by resolving conflicting information and developing reliable means of diagnosis. Plant and Soil. 320: 37-77.
Dahlberg A. and Mueller G.M. (2011) Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4: 147-162.
Department of National Parks, Sport and Racing (DNPSR) (2004) Great Sandy
National Park Management Plan 1994 - 2010.
Halling R.E. and Fechner N.A. (2011) Heimioporus (Boletinae) in Australia.Australiasian Mycologist 29: 47-51. Halling R., Fechner N., Nuhn M.,
Osmudson T., Soytaong K., Arora D., Binder M. and Hibbett D. (2015) Evolutionary relationships of Heimioporus and Boletellus (Boletales) with an emphasis on Australian taxa. Australian Systematic Botany 28: 1-22.
Robinson R.M. and Tunsell V.L. (2007) A list of macrofungi recorded in burnt and unburnt Eucalyptus diversicolor regrowth forest in the southwest of Western Australia: 1998-2002. Conservation Science Western Australia 6: 75-96.