• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • Published

Pouzarella alissae Largent & Bergemann

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Scientific name
Pouzarella alissae
Largent & Bergemann
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Proposed by
Noah Siegel
Noah Siegel
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

ANDERS—- This one appears ready.


This small brown inconspicuous entolomatoid fungus is only recorded from California, USA. Normally a fungus like this would not be considered for red listing; a fairly nondescript, recently described (2015) species from a single collection. However, taking into account the fact that Dr. David Largent has spent 45 years living and looking for entolomatoid fungi in this area, and done a monograph on Entolomataceae in western North America, never found it. It is obviously a rare fungus, although certainly a overlooked by all except specialized mycologist. Only little can be stated about its distribution and the status and trend of the total population. We assess it as a very rare species with possibly a restricted distribution (old growth Coast Redwood forests on the north Coast of California) with a number of localities not exceeding 100, corresponding to less than 1000 mature individuals. We therefore assess it as Vulnerable using the criteria D1.

Taxonomic notes

A recently discovered (2013) and described species (Largent & Bergemann 2015).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Known from a single collection in old growth Coast Redwood forest, from an area where Entolomataceae have been intensively studied for close to 45 years.

Geographic range

Known from a single location in coastal northern Humboldt County, California, USA.

Population and Trends

A recently described species from old growth Coast Redwood forest. This was the first record of a Pouzarella from coastal Humboldt County. Dr. David Largent; who has spent over 45 years in the area, researching, hunting and surveying for fungi, (and specializing in Entolomataceae) had never found a Pouzarella in this area. Dr Largent published a monograph Entolomataceae in western North America (1994) and never found it. Despite extensive mushroom surveys over the past 40 years in Redwood National and State Parks, it’s currently known from a single collection, made in 2013. Despite many attempts to locate other populations in the area, it has not been found since. Even though it is a fairly nondescript species overlooked by all but specialized mycologists, it appear to be a very rare fungus. Soil-dwelling fungi like P. alissae generally have long-lived perennial mycelia and it is assessed that the species was present prior the finding and continue to be present in the area without fruiting. Only little can be stated about its distribution and the status and trend of the total population. We assess it as a very rare species with possibly a restricted distribution with the total number of localities not exceeding 100. Assuming on average 2 mycelial genotypes per locality and each genotype to correspond to maximum 5(-10) clones (i.e. mature individuals), the total population will correspond to less than 1000 mature individuals.

Population Trend: Uncertain

Habitat and Ecology

Likely a saprobe, growing in duff, rotting bark and other debris under old growth Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), Big-leaf Maple, (Acer macrophyllum), and Sword Fern (Polystichum munitum).

Temperate Forest


Fire suppression seems to have had a negative effect on Hygrocybe, Leptonia and other Entolomatoid fungi in the old growth redwood forest; causing thick undergrowth of shrubs, especially Evergreen Huckleberry and Sword Fern. Many of the Hygrocybe, Leptonia and other Entolomatoid fungi need an open under story.

Unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Conservation Actions

Most remaining old growth redwood forests are protected in parks and reserves. However, year of fire suppression in these areas has drastically changed the habitat; from more open groves with an open under story, to denser groves with thick Sword Fern and huckleberry. Such habitat is not suited for many of the Entolomatoid and Hygrocyboid fungi, which need the open, and often lightly disturbed ground to fruit.

Research needed

More surveys within the only area where its presently is known from and other potential areas to locate other locations and the distribution of this species.

If understory burns will promote the growth of some of the rare Hygrocybe and Entoloma in the area.

Population size, distribution & trendsHarvest, use & livelihoods

Use and Trade



Largent, D. L. (1994). Entolomatoid fungi of the western United States and Alaska. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 516 pp.

Largent, David L.; Bergemann, Sarah E. Pouzarella alissae, a new species from northwestern California, United States
Mycotaxon, Volume 130 (4), October-December 2015. pp. 1153-1164(12)

Siegel, N. & C. Schwarz. 2016. Mushrooms of the Redwood Coast: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fungi of Coastal Northern California. Ten Speed Press, Emeryville, CA.

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted