Austroboletus amazonicus A.M. Vasco-Pal. & C. López-Quint. was described as new species by Vasco-P. et al. (2014). Mycologia, 106(5), 2014, pp. 1004–1014. DOI: 10.3852/13-324
Austroboletus amazonicus is a distinctive species of macrofungus that has only been found in three localities (near Peña Roja, Puerto Santander and El Zafire) in the amazon región of Colombia, in
association with Pseudomonotes tropenbosii, which has a very restricted distribution and is known only from the amazon región of Colombia. Pseudomonotes is a monotypic genus endemic to the Colombian Amazon Basin. It contains a single species Pseudomonotes tropenbosii.
Only four patches of Pseudomonotes have been found and the largest patch does not occupy more than four hectáreas.
Molecular data (Vasco et al, 2014) showed the ectomicorrhizal association of Austroboletus amazonicus and Pseudomonotes tropenbosii.
Because of the area of occupancy of the host which is about 12 hectáreas this species is CR C2a(i)+D
Specimens of Austroboletus amazónicos have been collected in three sites of the amazon region: El Zafire Biological area, in the southern part
of the Colombian Amazon, 4°00’S, 69°53’W, 27 km north of Leticia in the Amazonas Department. The area was visited during the rainy season Mar 2011–Mar 2013. In the Caqueta Department it was found in two sites: the first is about 50 km downstream along the Rio Caqueta form Araracuara near Peña Roja, 00°34’S, 79°08’W, and the second is close to the village of Puerto Santander, 00°39’S, 72°23’W, both at 200–300 m. These two sites were regularly visit during 1998–2001 and 2010–2012 with several visits between 2001 and 2010.
This species appears to be rare, restricted to an endemic host with a very small range and it has been found in areas that are quite threatened as it has been observed near Peña Roja and Puerto Santander, which makes it likely that its population is declining. In these two sites deforestation is a major issue, as well as mining and farming activities and loss of habitat in general (Forest 500 initiative). Only four populations of its host, Pseudomonotes tropenbosii, have been found and the biggest one has and extension of four hectareas.
The species was described from two localities of the Colombian Amazon in forests in mycorrhuzal association with Pseudomonotes tropenbosii (Vasco et al., 2014). These areas are located in the southern part of the Colombian Amazon, where the temperature is approximately 26°C, and the relative humidity is about 86%. Mean monthly precipitation is 280 mm, with a drier period June-September and a rainy season October-May. Soils in this area are sandy and mainly composed by quarz. The elevation in these areas is 80-300 m.
Habitat loss due to intensive mining and farming acivities..
No conservation actions are currently in place for this species. Protection of habitat needed.
Continuing the exploration of the región is needed.
Vasco-Palacios, Aída Marcela., López-Quintero, Carlos., Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza. Austroboletus amazonicus sp. nov. and Fistulinella campinaranae var. scroniculata, two commonly occurring boletes from a forest dominated by Pseudomonotes tropenbosii (Dipterocarpaceae) in Colombian Amazonia. 2014. Mycologia 106(5) 1004-1014.
Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza., Vasco-Palacios, Aída Marcela., López-Quintero, Carlos Alberto., & Boekhout, Teun. 2005. Macrohongos de la Región del Medio Caquetá - Colombia. Grupo de Taxonomía y Ecología de Hongos Universidad de Antioquia.
Forest 500 http://forest500.org/forest-500/jurisdictions/colombia
García-Romero, Helena. Deforestación en Colombia: Retos y Perspectivas. http://www.fedesarrollo.org.co/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/KAS-SOPLA_Deforestación-en-Colombia-retos-y-perspectivas.pdf
Newspaper article on deforestation. http://www.elespectador.com/noticias/medio-ambiente/colombia-entre-los-500-responsables-de-deforestacion-gl-articulo-543630
Castro-Herrera, Fernando., Valencia-Aguilar, Anyelet., Villaquirán-Martínez, Diego F.