• 1Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Sulcaria spiralifera (Brodo & D. Hawksw.) Myllys, Velmala & Goward

Go to another Suggested Species...

Scientific name
Sulcaria spiralifera
(Brodo & D. Hawksw.) Myllys, Velmala & Goward
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Proposed by
Troy McMullin
Troy McMullin
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

It is a rare species throughout its range. It also appears to be limited to a rare ecosystem. Approximately 20 sites are known. This species and its ecosystem are sensitive to disturbances that are presently occurring (climate change, coastal development, and air pollution).

Geographic range

This species is known from northern California, Oregon, and Washington (Glavitch 2003; Glavitch et al. 2005b). The majority of the sites are in Oregon.

Population and Trends

Known from approximately 20 sites. It only appears to be abundant at the type locality, the Samoa Peninsula.

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

It is only known to occur in hyper-maritime dune forests. It is usually on the branches of conifer trees, predominantly Picea sitchensis and Pinus contorta var. contorta and less frequently on Abies grandis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga heterophylla.


Coast-line development, climate change, and air pollution.

Conservation Actions

Several populations in California and Oregon are protected by state or federal land parcels, including Lake Earl State Park, US Fish & Wildlife Lanphere Dunes, and Samoa Dunes (BLM)(Geiser et al. 2004; Glavich et al. 2005b). It is provincially ranked S1 (critically imperiled) in Washington by the Washington Natural Heritage Program and it is proposed to be S1 in California (Glavich 2008).

Research needed

This species has received extensive study on public lands. Its distribution on private land is unknown.

It also appears to have a narrow tolerance for specific climatic conditions. Its range is predicted to become warmer, as much as 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2050 (Mote 2003). The impacts of warming on S. spiralifera could be researched to better manage it in the future.

Use and Trade


Brodo, I. M. & Hawksworth, D. L. (1977) Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1–164.

Geiser, L.H., D.A. Glavich, A.G. Mikulin, A.R. Ingersoll, & M. Hutten (2004) New records of rare and unusual coastal lichens from the US Pacific Northwest. Evansia 21(3): 104-110.

Glavich, D. A. (2003) The distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Bryoria spiralifera and B. pseudocapillaris on the Samoa Peninsula, Humboldt Co., coastal northern California. The Bryologist 106: 588–595.

Glavich, D. A. (2008) Bryoria spiralifera, Sponsorship for the CALS Conservation Committee. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 15(1): 4-6.

Glavich, D.A., L.H. Geiser, & A.G. Mikulin (2005b) The distribution of some rare coastal lichens in the Pacific Northwest and their association with late-seral and federally-protected forests. The Bryologist 108(2): 241-254.

Mote, P. W., E. A. Parson, A. F. Hamlet, W. S. Keeton, D. Lettenmaier, N. Mantua, E. L. Miles, D. W. Peterson, R. Slaughter & A. K. Snover. 2003. Preparing for climatic change: the water, salmon, and forests of the Pacific Northwest. Climatic Change 61: 45–88.

Myllys, L., S. Velmala, H. Lindgren, D. Glavich, T. Carlberg, L.S. Wang, and T. Goward (2014) Taxonomic delimitation of the genera Bryoria and Sulcaria, with a new combination Sulcaria spiralifera introduced. The Lichenologist 46: 737-752.

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted