It is a rare species throughout its range. It also appears to be limited to a rare ecosystem. Approximately 20 sites are known. This species and its ecosystem are sensitive to disturbances that are presently occurring (climate change, coastal development, and air pollution).
This species is known from northern California, Oregon, and Washington (Glavitch 2003; Glavitch et al. 2005b). The majority of the sites are in Oregon.
Known from approximately 20 sites. It only appears to be abundant at the type locality, the Samoa Peninsula.
It is only known to occur in hyper-maritime dune forests. It is usually on the branches of conifer trees, predominantly Picea sitchensis and Pinus contorta var. contorta and less frequently on Abies grandis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga heterophylla.
Coast-line development, climate change, and air pollution.
Several populations in California and Oregon are protected by state or federal land parcels, including Lake Earl State Park, US Fish & Wildlife Lanphere Dunes, and Samoa Dunes (BLM)(Geiser et al. 2004; Glavich et al. 2005b). It is provincially ranked S1 (critically imperiled) in Washington by the Washington Natural Heritage Program and it is proposed to be S1 in California (Glavich 2008).
This species has received extensive study on public lands. Its distribution on private land is unknown.
It also appears to have a narrow tolerance for specific climatic conditions. Its range is predicted to become warmer, as much as 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2050 (Mote 2003). The impacts of warming on S. spiralifera could be researched to better manage it in the future.
Brodo, I. M. & Hawksworth, D. L. (1977) Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1–164.
Geiser, L.H., D.A. Glavich, A.G. Mikulin, A.R. Ingersoll, & M. Hutten (2004) New records of rare and unusual coastal lichens from the US Pacific Northwest. Evansia 21(3): 104-110.
Glavich, D. A. (2003) The distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Bryoria spiralifera and B. pseudocapillaris on the Samoa Peninsula, Humboldt Co., coastal northern California. The Bryologist 106: 588–595.
Glavich, D. A. (2008) Bryoria spiralifera, Sponsorship for the CALS Conservation Committee. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 15(1): 4-6.
Glavich, D.A., L.H. Geiser, & A.G. Mikulin (2005b) The distribution of some rare coastal lichens in the Pacific Northwest and their association with late-seral and federally-protected forests. The Bryologist 108(2): 241-254.
Mote, P. W., E. A. Parson, A. F. Hamlet, W. S. Keeton, D. Lettenmaier, N. Mantua, E. L. Miles, D. W. Peterson, R. Slaughter & A. K. Snover. 2003. Preparing for climatic change: the water, salmon, and forests of the Pacific Northwest. Climatic Change 61: 45–88.
Myllys, L., S. Velmala, H. Lindgren, D. Glavich, T. Carlberg, L.S. Wang, and T. Goward (2014) Taxonomic delimitation of the genera Bryoria and Sulcaria, with a new combination Sulcaria spiralifera introduced. The Lichenologist 46: 737-752.