• 1Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Rinodina brodoana Sheard, Lendemer & E. Tripp

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Scientific name
Rinodina brodoana
Sheard, Lendemer & E. Tripp
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Proposed by
James Lendemer
James Lendemer
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Rinodina brodoana (common name: Ernie’s Mountain Treasure) is endemic to the southern Appalachian Mountains where it is known only from two populations in mature old-growth low to middle elevation hardwood forests. We assert this species merits ranking due to the limited known geographic range, small number of known extant populations (two), and the small number of individuals known (<50).

Geographic range

The species is restricted to a small region within the southern Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina, U.S.A.

Population and Trends

Demographic studies are needed to assess and monitor populations sizes. Our current knowledge of the species suggests that its populations are stable.

Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology

The species is restricted to mature middle and low elevation hardwood forests where it only is known to occur on the boles of large, mature hardwoods.

Temperate Forest


The threats to this species are habitat changes (macro- and micro- scale) as a result of climate change.

Climate change & severe weatherHabitat shifting & alterationTemperature extremesOther impacts

Conservation Actions

There are many conservation actions that can be taken including monitoring for changes in microhabitats/microclimates that might impact the species, educating and training land managers and local botanists to identify the species so we can monitor its health, federally listing the species as endangered in the United States, and improving air quality regulation.

Education & awarenessFormal educationTrainingAwareness & communicationsLaw & policyLegislationNational level

Research needed

Further research that will aid in the conservation of this species includes population assessments and monitoring, population genetics studies, and ecological studies that incorporate threats to the species. Additionally, a species recovery plan needs to be written.

ResearchPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreatsActionsConservation PlanningSpecies Action/Recovery PlanArea-based Management PlanMonitoringPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade


Lendemer, J.C., E. Tripp and J.W. Sheard. 2014. A review of Rinodina (Physciaceae) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park highlights the growing significance of this “island of biodiversity” in eastern North America. The Bryologist 117(3): 259-281.

Lendemer, J.C., R.C. Harris and E.A. Tripp. 2013. The lichens and allied fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist with comprehensive keys. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden 104: i-viii, 1-152

Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted